How did the red russians deal with the massive human capital issues of imperial russia in this short a time?
Not sure what exactly you mean by human capital issues. There are a couple things I can think you might be referring to but don't know which one in particular you are talking about.

In regards to industrial workers, similarly to OTL there was a mass depopulation of cities across Russia as people sought safety in their ancestral villages before gradually returning over the course of the 1920s - this isn't much different from OTL. This in turn results in major increases in demand for agricultural products, particularly food, which is at least somewhat alleviated through trade with the Zollverein as has been covered plenty of times. If you are referring to the educational deficiencies, then it is once again somewhat similar to OTL, with trail-and-error as well as plenty of middle class and upper class "turncoats" finding themselves pushed into dealing with this sort of stuff. In general I covered economic developments in the Soviet Republic extensively in the final part of Update 36, which should hopefully answer all your questions.

Otherwise, if you could specify what exactly you meant I can give a better answer.
 
A few points I picked up on:

1. I wonder how the Americans are going to take being pushed out of their traditional markets (Latin America and Europe)
2. I'm starting to see a pattern with Italy, are they becoming TTL equivalent of Communist Yugoslavia? In the context of being a non-aligned communist nation
3. Hooray! Keynes is going to save the Empire! There's no possible way Zulfurium will break my heart again, I just know Zulfurium is going to make everything alright, with no surprises, yessiree. 😛
 
A few points I picked up on:

1. I wonder how the Americans are going to take being pushed out of their traditional markets (Latin America and Europe)
2. I'm starting to see a pattern with Italy, are they becoming TTL equivalent of Communist Yugoslavia? In the context of being a non-aligned communist nation
3. Hooray! Keynes is going to save the Empire! There's no possible way Zulfurium will break my heart again, I just know Zulfurium is going to make everything alright, with no surprises, yessiree. 😛

1. It is a bit of a mixed bag, the United States are still one of the largest business partners for the northern South American countries - hell, tropical fruits is more a matter of it shifting from American-owned supply chains from start to finish to the South Americans owning the plantations and the Americans the rest, so while a significant change which has ruined the less adaptable tropical fruit companies, it is more a matter of new American actors taking over the market than anything. Nevertheless, the Americans are gradually getting squeezed out by the Latin Pact, and that state of affairs could become rather combative when we get into the 1940s. As for Europe, it again is a troubling matter for the business elite, but with first the Democrats and then the Progressives in power, rather than the far more business-aligned Republicans (Curtis' administration was so paralyzed by political infighting that it wasn't really able to do much) it has meant a struggle to press into foreign markets. A lot of American exports have been redirected towards southern South America and the British Dominions in place of Europe, and there has been an even greater domestic consumer economy, but it is insufficient to make up for the losses. American business representatives are particularly furious about the Zollverein and the Latin Pact trade agreements, but the political focus has been on isolationism and domestic politics for the most part which has hampered the American response. Hope that makes sense. Basically, the American business elite are pissed, but most of the rest of the population couldn't care less, not really grasping the wider economic ramifications of a lacking market demand.

2. Yugoslavia is a decent comparison, but doesn't quite work. The main thing missing from the analogy is the overwhelming dependence upon the Zollverein which the Italian People's Republic has - with not only most of its energy needs coming therefrom, but the Zollverein also being the primary target for Italian exports of various sorts.

3. I have honestly started to feel a twinge of sympathy for you whenever I fuck things up in the British Empire, but its not like that is going to stop me from going where I want to go :p Honestly, I am not quite certain where the end point for the UK and the Dominions will end up being, but I do have some ideas - a lot of them contradictory. Still going to depend a lot on what strikes me when I am writing about the Empire.
 
1. It is a bit of a mixed bag, the United States are still one of the largest business partners for the northern South American countries - hell, tropical fruits is more a matter of it shifting from American-owned supply chains from start to finish to the South Americans owning the plantations and the Americans the rest, so while a significant change which has ruined the less adaptable tropical fruit companies, it is more a matter of new American actors taking over the market than anything. Nevertheless, the Americans are gradually getting squeezed out by the Latin Pact, and that state of affairs could become rather combative when we get into the 1940s. As for Europe, it again is a troubling matter for the business elite, but with first the Democrats and then the Progressives in power, rather than the far more business-aligned Republicans (Curtis' administration was so paralyzed by political infighting that it wasn't really able to do much) it has meant a struggle to press into foreign markets. A lot of American exports have been redirected towards southern South America and the British Dominions in place of Europe, and there has been an even greater domestic consumer economy, but it is insufficient to make up for the losses. American business representatives are particularly furious about the Zollverein and the Latin Pact trade agreements, but the political focus has been on isolationism and domestic politics for the most part which has hampered the American response. Hope that makes sense. Basically, the American business elite are pissed, but most of the rest of the population couldn't care less, not really grasping the wider economic ramifications of a lacking market demand.

2. Yugoslavia is a decent comparison, but doesn't quite work. The main thing missing from the analogy is the overwhelming dependence upon the Zollverein which the Italian People's Republic has - with not only most of its energy needs coming therefrom, but the Zollverein also being the primary target for Italian exports of various sorts.

3. I have honestly started to feel a twinge of sympathy for you whenever I fuck things up in the British Empire, but its not like that is going to stop me from going where I want to go :p Honestly, I am not quite certain where the end point for the UK and the Dominions will end up being, but I do have some ideas - a lot of them contradictory. Still going to depend a lot on what strikes me when I am writing about the Empire.
1. Oh yes, that makes perfect sense. As a matter of fact it was Wall Street and that business elite that I was thinking about when I wrote that. It does make me wonder though, with Long's utter contempt for Wall Street and Big Business in general, the business lobby is bound to lose quite a bit of influence in government, how are they going to adapt with a President generally hostile to their interests? Knowing Long's authoritarian "My-Way-Or-I-Crush-You" tendencies, might we see something like the Business Plot?

2. Hmmm, interesting. Kinda puts a huge wrench in any hopes for neutrality, doesn't it? Especially seeing as the Italian Navy, if it rebuilds, is in a position to influence the Mediterranean in the favour of one side or the other...

3. So my continuous autistic screeching is bearing fruit is it? 😂 In all honesty though, I wouldn't dream of making any author change their TL against what they want for it. While I'm hopeful things may yet improve, I'll still read on despite whatever direction you take the Empire, your TL has me hooked at this point.
 
1. Oh yes, that makes perfect sense. As a matter of fact it was Wall Street and that business elite that I was thinking about when I wrote that. It does make me wonder though, with Long's utter contempt for Wall Street and Big Business in general, the business lobby is bound to lose quite a bit of influence in government, how are they going to adapt with a President generally hostile to their interests? Knowing Long's authoritarian "My-Way-Or-I-Crush-You" tendencies, might we see something like the Business Plot?

2. Hmmm, interesting. Kinda puts a huge wrench in any hopes for neutrality, doesn't it? Especially seeing as the Italian Navy, if it rebuilds, is in a position to influence the Mediterranean in the favour of one side or the other...

3. So my continuous autistic screeching is bearing fruit is it? 😂 In all honesty though, I wouldn't dream of making any author change their TL against what they want for it. While I'm hopeful things may yet improve, I'll still read on despite whatever direction you take the Empire, your TL has me hooked at this point.

1. I actually dealt somewhat with that in the formation of the Liberty Party, but as we get further into the Long era and he gets more authoritarian we could well start seeing something like the Business Plot or other efforts at destabilizing or removing Long from power either through legitimate or illegitimate means. Hell, even within the Progressive Party it is worth noting that Long is far from universally popular - he has suppressed his rivals quite forcefully, but they are still major political figures with a significant following. Honestly, the whole situation in the United States is one of the areas I really look forward to playing around with, there is a lot of potential for things to go in all sorts of different directions.

2. Thing is, Italy is in an incredibly precarious position with limited resources. The Italians really can't build up a sufficiently large navy capable of preventing the opponent from enjoying naval superiority without completely undermining every other part of their economy and military. It is too great of a risk. So instead, the Italians have focused on a navy capable of harassment and attrition, an airforce capable of ensuring Italian aerial supremacy over the peninsula in most circumstances and a land army capable of bogging down any enemy behind a series of fortifications which cover the entire peninsula. The Italians would have a decent chance of staving off Royal Italian, Latin Pact, French or British assault at least for a time, but against Germany they would see their energy lifeline cut and just wither on the vine - that is why the Italians have cozied up to the Germans to this degree, and part of why they are the ones who invest first and most heavily in the development of nuclear energy.

3. x'D I am happy that you were able to hold on despite the situation with the Empire, it is nice to know that my writing and ideas are interesting enough to keep someone engaged even when there is something that they have as negative a view of as you do the British decline. As for the UK, it is mostly that there are a bunch of different directions I could go in, and I am not quite sure which one I find the most interesting or plausible. I also don't know quite how far I want to go with the crisis that Britain has found itself in.
 
There are a ton of them out there, so could you specify a few you want to know about? Do note that some of them have been mentioned in various roles over the course of the TL already.
I want to especially know what became of the high-ranking staff armoured commanders, e.g. Guderian, Hausser, von Manstein, von Rundstedt, von Kleist, Model, Hube,Nehring, Kempf, von Kluge,von Weichs, Paulus, von Brauchitsch, Halder, von Bock, Hoth and von Leeb.
 
I'm also curious, is William Lyon Mackenzie King Jr still the Canadian PM ITTL? If so can you run him over with a tank? Or maybe just in a position where he's far away from from foreign policy, he WAS admittedly decent when it came to domestic policy...
 
Informational Four (Pt. 1): Fate of German Military Commanders of World War Two Fame
I want to especially know what became of the high-ranking staff armoured commanders, e.g. Guderian, Hausser, von Manstein, von Rundstedt, von Kleist, Model, Hube,Nehring, Kempf, von Kluge,von Weichs, Paulus, von Brauchitsch, Halder, von Bock, Hoth and von Leeb.

Guderian: Part of the clique of military men surrounding Wilhelm von Preussen (son of the Crown Prince). He is part of the military staff and has been involved in the development of German armored vehicles, tactics and strategic considerations. I would expect him to still work closely with Ernst Volckheim and Oswald Lutz.

Hausser: Spent his career in the military post-Great War and retired in the 1930s. I could see him being part of the rather significant collection of people researching the course of the Great War - this is a particular focus of Hermann von Kuhl, who holds a leading position in the German High Command during this period.

Manstein: Erich von Manstein was the military commander of the Bolivian Army during the Chaco War and led them to victory against the Paraguayans. He is viewed as one of the bright up-and-coming stars in the military and is likely destined for promotion to high command.

Weichs: I don't see him securing a significant position given his reliance upon the patronage of Werner von Fritsch IOTL. Probably stuck in the wider pool of mid-tier officers competing for postings and high position.

Paulus: I think he is in the same group as Guderian given his OTL service under Lutz. He was seen as a promising commander even during the Great War, so I would expect him to be one of the commanders who are making their way up the ranks relatively quickly. Think he might be one of the men dispatched to serve as observer in Georgia or Bolivia, and he would have gained a good deal of experience and prestige through that sort of work. I have to think that Paulus' patron and mentor, Walter von Reichenau, would still be a pretty prominent figure given his role as leading staff officer for the 7th Cavalry Division during the height of Operation GEORG - should be enough to provide a relatively smooth path further up the ranks (although his tendency to get mixed up in political struggles within the military could prove a problem - but I am going with him aligning behind Hoffmann early on in the post-War, and using that to springboard up in ranks). As such Paulus should have more than sufficient backing to get good postings.

Brauchitsch: Given his past in the artillery, I think that is where he stays, becoming part of the clique surrounding the figure of Fritz von Lossberg who proves an immensely important military figure in the post-war years. I could see him still getting into trouble over his personal life, but with the changes to the social and political situation from OTL he probably doesn't have anything like the same troubles in divorcing and remarrying. He might still have money problems, which could trip him up, and I would expect his family to be amongst the Junkers who run into economic troubles and are forced to sell off their estates. Anyway, he is probably pretty far up in the military hierarchy, aligned with the Lossberg clique (even if Lossberg has retired by this time) - he might even be leading it at this point in time.

Halder: I would expect him to still end up under Brauchitsch, but without Hitler to push him to prominence, I think he is in the same group as Weichs - stuck amongst the many mid-tier officers competing for postings. Don't think he would be able to make the cut amongst that group and ends up languishing, hoping for some sort of conflict or opportunity to provide him a way to a command.

von Bock: Bock, having been awarded with a Pour le Merite, seems likely to be an ascendant figure. I think he would fall into one of the rival cliques to that of Lossberg, led by Hans von Seeckt. While a lot weaker than IOTL and compared to the two major factions ITTL post-Hoffmann (Lossberg and von Kuhl), Seeckt's group is still significant and powerful, allowing Bock to rise quickly through the ranks. I would expect he is one of the officers securing foreign postings as leader of military delegations or military observer, primarily in the other Zollverein nations.

Hoth: Think Hoth is another one of those who fall into the Halder and Weichs camp - no real opportunity to advance, no obvious postings and no major patron or backer to help him up the ranks. He is left hoping for an opportunity, but is without any clear way upward in the late 1930s.

von Leeb: As for Leeb, I think he could well have been the leader of a military delegation to Japan to observe the JCW. His experience from the Boxer War, decorations and age would put him on the precipice of retirement, having only recently finished out what could well be his last major duty posting in the Far East.

Hope that answers your question :) was rather fun running through, but remember to take all of this with a grain of salt. I reserve the right to change things around if I suddenly find a need to do so with any of these, but for the most part it should be in order.

I'm also curious, is William Lyon Mackenzie King Jr still the Canadian PM ITTL? If so can you run him over with a tank? Or maybe just in a position where he's far away from from foreign policy, he WAS admittedly decent when it came to domestic policy...
The 1930s should still see the developments mentioned continue, although I am not sure if King stays at the top throughout that period, and anti-British sentiment is only going to keep growing at a slow but steady pace. Notably Canadian-American relations improve quite a bit during this time, with friendly relations to both the Curtis and Long presidency.
 
Speaking of more experienced lower-ranking Panzer commanders what's become of Bäke, von Oppeln-Bronikowski and especially Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz and his family's famed Silesian palace/estate at Groß Stein? Has this Junker estate remained solvent? And what about the von Hindenburg family's(brother's) East Prussian estate at Neudeck?
 
Guderian: Part of the clique of military men surrounding Wilhelm von Preussen (son of the Crown Prince). He is part of the military staff and has been involved in the development of German armored vehicles, tactics and strategic considerations. I would expect him to still work closely with Ernst Volckheim and Oswald Lutz.

Hausser: Spent his career in the military post-Great War and retired in the 1930s. I could see him being part of the rather significant collection of people researching the course of the Great War - this is a particular focus of Hermann von Kuhl, who holds a leading position in the German High Command during this period.

Manstein: Erich von Manstein was the military commander of the Bolivian Army during the Chaco War and led them to victory against the Paraguayans. He is viewed as one of the bright up-and-coming stars in the military and is likely destined for promotion to high command.

Weichs: I don't see him securing a significant position given his reliance upon the patronage of Werner von Fritsch IOTL. Probably stuck in the wider pool of mid-tier officers competing for postings and high position.

Paulus: I think he is in the same group as Guderian given his OTL service under Lutz. He was seen as a promising commander even during the Great War, so I would expect him to be one of the commanders who are making their way up the ranks relatively quickly. Think he might be one of the men dispatched to serve as observer in Georgia or Bolivia, and he would have gained a good deal of experience and prestige through that sort of work. I have to think that Paulus' patron and mentor, Walter von Reichenau, would still be a pretty prominent figure given his role as leading staff officer for the 7th Cavalry Division during the height of Operation GEORG - should be enough to provide a relatively smooth path further up the ranks (although his tendency to get mixed up in political struggles within the military could prove a problem - but I am going with him aligning behind Hoffmann early on in the post-War, and using that to springboard up in ranks). As such Paulus should have more than sufficient backing to get good postings.

Brauchitsch: Given his past in the artillery, I think that is where he stays, becoming part of the clique surrounding the figure of Fritz von Lossberg who proves an immensely important military figure in the post-war years. I could see him still getting into trouble over his personal life, but with the changes to the social and political situation from OTL he probably doesn't have anything like the same troubles in divorcing and remarrying. He might still have money problems, which could trip him up, and I would expect his family to be amongst the Junkers who run into economic troubles and are forced to sell off their estates. Anyway, he is probably pretty far up in the military hierarchy, aligned with the Lossberg clique (even if Lossberg has retired by this time) - he might even be leading it at this point in time.

Halder: I would expect him to still end up under Brauchitsch, but without Hitler to push him to prominence, I think he is in the same group as Weichs - stuck amongst the many mid-tier officers competing for postings. Don't think he would be able to make the cut amongst that group and ends up languishing, hoping for some sort of conflict or opportunity to provide him a way to a command.

von Bock: Bock, having been awarded with a Pour le Merite, seems likely to be an ascendant figure. I think he would fall into one of the rival cliques to that of Lossberg, led by Hans von Seeckt. While a lot weaker than IOTL and compared to the two major factions ITTL post-Hoffmann (Lossberg and von Kuhl), Seeckt's group is still significant and powerful, allowing Bock to rise quickly through the ranks. I would expect he is one of the officers securing foreign postings as leader of military delegations or military observer, primarily in the other Zollverein nations.

Hoth: Think Hoth is another one of those who fall into the Halder and Weichs camp - no real opportunity to advance, no obvious postings and no major patron or backer to help him up the ranks. He is left hoping for an opportunity, but is without any clear way upward in the late 1930s.

von Leeb: As for Leeb, I think he could well have been the leader of a military delegation to Japan to observe the JCW. His experience from the Boxer War, decorations and age would put him on the precipice of retirement, having only recently finished out what could well be his last major duty posting in the Far East.

Hope that answers your question :) was rather fun running through, but remember to take all of this with a grain of salt. I reserve the right to change things around if I suddenly find a need to do so with any of these, but for the most part it should be in order.


The 1930s should still see the developments mentioned continue, although I am not sure if King stays at the top throughout that period, and anti-British sentiment is only going to keep growing at a slow but steady pace. Notably Canadian-American relations improve quite a bit during this time, with friendly relations to both the Curtis and Long presidency.
What about our favorite overrated "apolitical" officer, Rommel ?
 
Informational Four (Pt. 2): Fate of German Military Commanders of World War Two Fame
Speaking of more experienced lower-ranking Panzer commanders what's become of Bäke, von Oppeln-Bronikowski and especially Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz and his family's famed Silesian palace/estate at Groß Stein? Has this Junker estate remained solvent? And what about the von Hindenburg family's(brother's) East Prussian estate at Neudeck?

Bäke: I would expect him to be part of the Army Reserves, primarily focused on his career as a dentist. I doubt he is particularly politically involved , probably part of his local veterans association and he potentially still served in the east as part of the Freikorps. Don't think he is positioned for prominence.

Oppeln-Bronikowski: Probably one of those mid-tier officers, although his Olympic career might give him a bit of a leg up. Still part of the cavalry, and probably one of their premier recruiters.

Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz: Seeing as he ended up sitting out most of the war and doesn't have any revolts or other conflicts to really make his name in, I think he might be one of those who ends up out of military service. He seems like one of the junkers who would be complaining particularly loudly about the leftist government and jockeying for financial support for them. Might even be a regional representative in the local Silesian parliament.

The whole Hindenburg family is rather surrounded by controversy, with opinions sharply split on them, with particularly Hoffmann being very hostile. As a result, Oskar von Hindenburg's career is basically at a standstill throughout the first half of the 1920s and he eventually retires to Neudeck. I think the Neudeck estate might be one of the few to make it through, but they could also be amongst those that go under. Thinking about it a bit, I would expect it to be one of the estates able to get financial aid through various sympathizers, who want to avoid Hindenburg's family falling from its status (Hindenburg was still a pretty significant behind-the-scenes figure ITTL during the 1920s both in conservative circles and within the army).

What about our favorite overrated "apolitical" officer, Rommel ?

Rommel: Rommel was a very capable officer with plenty of war-time accomplishments and accolades, so I think his career path would be pretty smooth. I think that he ends up being part of developing special forces given his experience in the Alpenkorps and as such ends up pretty closely aligned with the central leadership group who take over after Hoffmann retires. I don't think he ends up specialized in panzer warfare, instead being more involved in moutain troops, jägers, paratroopers and the like - special forces more broadly, and does a great job of it (even if he is overrated, he was still highly capable).

And Model?

Model: I think Model was pretty perfectly positioned to become part of the wider research and development segment surrounding Hermann von Kuhl, which should pave a path towards rapid upward progress. I think he spends a good deal of time in studying the Great War, writing works about that, lecturing at the staff college and the like. He should be pretty well positioned to be named as a Chief of Staff to one of the major commands in the case of a war breaking out.
 
Just came back from playing the TNO mod on HOI4 as the Dirlewanger Brigade. I couldn't help but wonder to myself about this question, how is the infamous Oskar Dirlewanger faring for himself ITTL? Also, what about his IOTL Waffen-SS/Polizei colleagues Heinz Reinefarth and Erich von dem Bach?
 
Informational Four (Pt. 3): Fate of German Military Commanders of World War Two Fame
Just came back from playing the TNO mod on HOI4 as the Dirlewanger Brigade. I couldn't help but wonder to myself about this question, how is the infamous Oskar Dirlewanger faring for himself ITTL? Also, what about his IOTL Waffen-SS/Polizei colleagues Heinz Reinefarth and Erich von dem Bach?

Dirlewanger: Without the post-war rebellions and violence, I think he relatively quickly transitions to peacetime - although he probably remains deeply troubled and has repeated run-ins with the government during this period. I could see him still studying at the University of Goethe and going on to serve as executive director of that Jewish textile factory he worked at IOTL in the mid-1920s. Probably ends up jumping between a bunch of jobs thereafter, having various run-ins with the law before a first conviction for rape of a 14-year old, as IOTL. He probably descends quickly into hard criminality thereafter, jumping between prison and a criminal lifestyle - one of the prime examples of held up by negative eugenicists for why sterilization should be implemented. Without a Nazi cadre leader to arrange his release, he probably continues to spin out either ending up dead or in jail for life - only question is how many and the scale of the crimes he commits before that.

Heinz Reinefarth: I would expect him to be well under way with his law career, probably aligned with the Conservative bloc and making a quiet, happy life for himself.

Erich von dem Bach: I am honestly not quite sure about Bach. Without getting involved with the militant veterans groups, he could just stay in the military as a lieutenant and slowly make his way up the grades - although he is unlikely to get very far up - eventually he probably ends up leaving the army anyway, jumping between jobs before starting a taxi firm (as IOTL) and eventually buying a farm, moving to the countryside and serving in the reserves. He doesn't find a path to relevance thereafter.
 
Also, how many military men did each major combatant of the Great War lose dead or missing in combat and so presumed dead (irrecoverable losses) ITTL? Did Germany still lose the most men as per OTL, or did Russia's crushing defeat at the hands of the Central Powers in 1918 lead to its total death toll exceeding that of Germany?
 
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Also, how many military men did each major combatant of the Great War lose dead or missing in combat and so presumed dead (irrecoverable losses) ITTL? Did Germany still lose the most men as per OTL, or did Russia's crushing defeat at the hands of the Central Powers in 1918 lead to its total death toll exceeding that of Germany?
Hmmm, German casualties are probably slightly higher than OTL. As for Russia, the actual war casualties are probably somewhat close to OTL, maybe a bit higher, but they are dwarfed by the casualties of the Russian Civil War. The United States are probably the ones who have seen the largest difference in casualties, having had to actually participate in several major campaigns fully, and racking up immense numbers of casualities as a result both to the Great Flu and the frontline travails.
 
Could German KIA/MIA reach 2.1-2.3 million(these are OTL Japanese WWII figures)

Probably lower end of that spectrum, maybe a bit over 2.1 million, up to around 2.15 million, somewhere in that span.

So how do you think the leadership of TTL's Soviet Russia would have reacted to the OTL Stalinist Soviet Union?

With horror. They would see it as an utter perversion of the Communist movement, a prime example of what a "Trotskyite Bonapartist Regime" would have looked like, but even worse. They would find the mindless doctrinarianism, absolutist autocratic rule and murderous purges anathema. While the TTL Soviet regime are establishing an ideological doctrine post-Trotskyite Affair, they are much, much more open to critique and ideological differences of opinion, and while they do have their secret police, political prisoners and purges, it is nothing even close to that of the Stalinist regime. Hell, even the Lenin regime would be viewed extremely negatively - his decision to unleash the October Revolution despite intense party opposition being particularly troubling - a demonstration of his failures to follow principles of communal leadership, although they would be able to understand the hard decisions taken during the civil war, and perhaps even admire the Soviet rise to victory which was more smoothly accomplished than their own effort. They would probably find the irony of trotskyite ideology between IOTL and ITTL particularly entertaining, as well as Trotsky's inability to work within the system. Stalin himself would be seen as a corrupting presence who doomed Communism through his insidious acceptance and support of corruption, nepotism and sham ideological purity. Hope that is a good enough answer :)
 
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