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African-American Questioned by Armed Vigilantes During The Red Summer

American Living
Welp, I’m depressed now.
 
Glad I could inspire that Lovecraftian description of Communism 😛

You know, I do wonder how Ayn Rand and Objectivism comes out ITTL, if Objectivism isn't completely butterflied of course
I personally hope for Sociopath: The Philosophy being butterflied. Or somehow General Secretary Alisa Rosenbaum for shits and giggles.

It was a lot of fun to think about and Lovecraft honestly fits quite well in this context.

As for Ayn Rand, I don't think she leaves Russia but it becomes a question of how exactly her family reacted to the Russian Civil War. IOTL they moved from Petrograd to the Crimea before returning up north following the end of the civil war, going to university but struggling against anti-bourgeoisie prejudice. When thinking about it there is a high likelihood that she and her family are amongst those killed in the series of conflicts for control of Petrograd - the White Petrograd faction weren't exactly going to be positively inclined towards a Jewish bourgeoisie family. However, if they survive, then they would end up under Muscovite rule. Don't know if she even ends up writing - she went to university to study history and pedagogy so I could see her ending up as a school teacher in the Muscovite school system. The United States isn't exactly the most friendly place to Jews coming from Russia during the latter half of the 1920s or early 1930s when they might have considered emigration - Germany or Palestine are probably the prime candidates and ITTL I don't think the Soviet Republic is bad enough for them to take off. So to conclude, Ayn Rand is most likely a school teacher somewhere in western Russia.
 
I'd like to remind everyone Ayn Rand worked as a screenwriter at one point IOTL, and since both Russia and Germany are such movie meccas it's possible she also entered the profession ITTL.
 
It was a lot of fun to think about and Lovecraft honestly fits quite well in this context.

As for Ayn Rand, I don't think she leaves Russia but it becomes a question of how exactly her family reacted to the Russian Civil War. IOTL they moved from Petrograd to the Crimea before returning up north following the end of the civil war, going to university but struggling against anti-bourgeoisie prejudice. When thinking about it there is a high likelihood that she and her family are amongst those killed in the series of conflicts for control of Petrograd - the White Petrograd faction weren't exactly going to be positively inclined towards a Jewish bourgeoisie family. However, if they survive, then they would end up under Muscovite rule. Don't know if she even ends up writing - she went to university to study history and pedagogy so I could see her ending up as a school teacher in the Muscovite school system. The United States isn't exactly the most friendly place to Jews coming from Russia during the latter half of the 1920s or early 1930s when they might have considered emigration - Germany or Palestine are probably the prime candidates and ITTL I don't think the Soviet Republic is bad enough for them to take off. So to conclude, Ayn Rand is most likely a school teacher somewhere in western Russia.
In that case you've gotta include a narrative piece about some student commenting on his teacher's odd essay, Is a man not entitled to the sweat of his own brow?

I personally hope for Sociopath: The Philosophy being butterflied. Or somehow General Secretary Alisa Rosenbaum for shits and giggles.
General Secretary Alisa Rosenbaum does have a nice ring to it...
 
So.... Is it just information overload and this being essentially a bunch of niche topics bundled into a single update that are holding people back from commenting (I know, sorry about always asking for feedback, but it is one of those things which really keep me engaged and let me know if I am on the right or wrong track - it is hard to figure out what people are thinking :coldsweat:), or just a lack of interest in the topic itself? Are people finding the topical coverage of this update interesting or is this an approach I should avoid in the future?

The extensive discussions of classical music probably aren't for everyone, but I do wonder what people think of the literary movements in East Asia (how the JCW shape things there) and what people's thoughts on the Tatlin Tower or the German New Objectivity Movement are (particularly that that movement is connected to the Conservative block, and the general connection between the Modernist and futurist currents to the Conservatives). What about the growth in American censorship and it actually having an impact? Portugal as a cinematic superpower? The whole Chinese section with its gradual shift away from abject modernism and westernization towards an all-out embrace of reformed traditionalist elements?

I spent an absolutely disgusting amount of time trawling through the intricacies of Korean literary movements in the 1920s and 30s (also went into the 40s and 50s to see what impact crisis and independence had) to say nothing of the immense amount of conjecture I have had to get into with the whole Proletkult movement since something like 3/4 of the cultural developments I am exploring were stamped out by various dictatorial forces during this period IOTL. Just want to know people's thoughts on what I think are some of the more fun and weird developments I threw in there as I was writing this (seriously, this ended up being a full 16k words and it was written in something like a week and a half, so this was a lot more of a on-the-spot creativity exercise than a lot of other topics where I could map things out more properly).

EDIT: Completely unrelated, but have any of you guys ever heard of the Gwangju Uprising? I have been watching a show which deals with the event and found it rather fitting to a lot of the TTL events taking place - as well as a reflection on how swiftly society can change. It is honestly disconcerting to think of this sort of massacre playing out in South Korea barely forty years ago, ten years before they democratised and basically set in motion the shift which led to South Korea being a developed country on par with most European and Anglophone countries. In the span of a decade South Korea went from having their intelligence chief literally assassinate a president and perpetrate such brutal repression that it set off a literal armed rebellion to open and free democratic elections and the start of the country's current era. In general the 1980s and 1990s must have been such a weird time to live through as an adult - the sheer scale of transformation feels similar in a lot of ways to that of the 1930s and 1940s.
 
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Personally I enjoy reading everything that's been posted here, however my area of knowledge is more political/military aspects of history, as opposed to cultural/societal. So generally I'll only comment on political and military developments.

Of course compared to most people here, I'm an absolute amateur and don't do extensive research or fact-checking. So my knowledge is just a mix of all the tidbits I've read, watched, picked up on in my life and common sense. Sp that's a factor in my lack of comments as well
 
So.... Is it just information overload and this being essentially a bunch of niche topics bundled into a single update that are holding people back from commenting (I know, sorry about always asking for feedback, but it is one of those things which really keep me engaged and let me know if I am on the right or wrong track - it is hard to figure out what people are thinking :coldsweat:), or just a lack of interest in the topic itself? Are people finding the topical coverage of this update interesting or is this an approach I should avoid in the future?

The extensive discussions of classical music probably aren't for everyone, but I do wonder what people think of the literary movements in East Asia (how the JCW shape things there) and what people's thoughts on the Tatlin Tower or the German New Objectivity Movement are (particularly that that movement is connected to the Conservative block, and the general connection between the Modernist and futurist currents to the Conservatives). What about the growth in American censorship and it actually having an impact? Portugal as a cinematic superpower? The whole Chinese section with its gradual shift away from abject modernism and westernization towards an all-out embrace of reformed traditionalist elements?

I spent an absolutely disgusting amount of time trawling through the intricacies of Korean literary movements in the 1920s and 30s (also went into the 40s and 50s to see what impact crisis and independence had) to say nothing of the immense amount of conjecture I have had to get into with the whole Proletkult movement since something like 3/4 of the cultural developments I am exploring were stamped out by various dictatorial forces during this period IOTL. Just want to know people's thoughts on what I think are some of the more fun and weird developments I threw in there as I was writing this (seriously, this ended up being a full 16k words and it was written in something like a week and a half, so this was a lot more of a on-the-spot creativity exercise than a lot of other topics where I could map things out more properly).

EDIT: Completely unrelated, but have any of you guys ever heard of the Gwangju Uprising? I have been watching a show which deals with the event and found it rather fitting to a lot of the TTL events taking place - as well as a reflection on how swiftly society can change. It is honestly disconcerting to think of this sort of massacre playing out in South Korea barely forty years ago, ten years before they democratised and basically set in motion the shift which led to South Korea being a developed country on par with most European and Anglophone countries. In the span of a decade South Korea went from having their intelligence chief literally assassinate a president and perpetrate such brutal repression that it set off a literal armed rebellion to open and free democratic elections and the start of the country's current era. In general the 1980s and 1990s must have been such a weird time to live through as an adult - the sheer scale of transformation feels similar in a lot of ways to that of the 1930s and 1940s.
I read some about the gwangju uprising a few years ago, interesting stuff and completely left field for me
 
I read some about the gwangju uprising a few years ago, interesting stuff and completely left field for me

I have found it fascinating to explore the way it has played into modern politics in South Korea. For that matter it sort of boggles the mind that the first female SK Prime Minister (who was eventually tossed out on corruption charges amongst much else somethings like five years ago) was actually the daughter of the SK dictator who took power with the Gwangju Uprising and ruled through the 1980s. How do you end up electing your former dictator’s daughter barely two decades after his rule? Just a fascinating dynamic. Just in general looking into how there are people who play major roles through multiple dictatorial reigns is often fascinating - Anastas Mikoyan literally was one of the Old Bolsheviks of the pre-Revolution days, served under Lenin and was one of the top figures under Stalin, and continued to hold a position of authority throughout the rest of the Soviet Era even as wave after wave of purge went through. For that matter exploring the connection of prominent politicians in Eastern European nations to where they were or their parents were in the Cold War era is always fascinating.
I love everything you write, but am still not Finished Reading. You seem to be able to write faster than I can read ;)

:tiredface: Now that is a true problem, 😂. I am on something of a tear at the moment since I am rushing to make sure I can match the schedule (working on the update for next week right now and still have something like half of it left to write). Well, happy to know that this was a problem and not that the contents were uninteresting.
 
Going forward I suggest putting various cultural and social developments into the chapters that deal with those respective countries – American cultural developments go into the update about America, German developments go into the chapter about Germany etc.

That way its easier for readers to perceive the various developments in the context of the situation of the respective countries, instead of having it all in one giant info dump.

the German New Objectivity Movement are (particularly that that movement is connected to the Conservative block, and the general connection between the Modernist and futurist currents to the Conservatives).

This has the potential to be the most significant development of the whole update in the long term. New movements in culture, art and architecture have usually been linked to the left, while the right for the most part has done little more than react to those developments (one of the few exceptions being the OTL futurist movement in Italy, which was linked to fascism in its early days). But having an influential new cultural movement coming from (or being affiliated with) the right creates a very different kind of dynamic, since it can equip the right with something it has usually lacked, namely a positive vision for society which can compete with the vision of the left, instead of merely defending the status quo.
 
Going forward I suggest putting various cultural and social developments into the chapters that deal with those respective countries – American cultural developments go into the update about America, German developments go into the chapter about Germany etc.

That way its easier for readers to perceive the various developments in the context of the situation of the respective countries, instead of having it all in one giant info dump.



This has the potential to be the most significant development of the whole update in the long term. New movements in culture, art and architecture have usually been linked to the left, while the right for the most part has done little more than react to those developments (one of the few exceptions being the OTL futurist movement in Italy, which was linked to fascism in its early days). But having an influential new cultural movement coming from (or being affiliated with) the right creates a very different kind of dynamic, since it can equip the right with something it has usually lacked, namely a positive vision for society which can compete with the vision of the left, instead of merely defending the status quo.

I do sprinkle in cultural and social developments where they feel relevant, but Update 40 (and 25) are more meant to serve as a change of perspective which digs deep into the topic rather than the individual region if that makes sense. So think of this more as a supplemental approach and a change of perspective than a matter of all socio-cultural developments being taken out of the ordinary updates. Now with culture in particular it is hard to split it up by topic rather than region, but my hope was to show both how the cultures are developing and the way in which various cultural movements are impacting each other across borders and regions.

That was exactly my thinking - I was sort of spoiled for choices because I have the German Liberty Movement lionizing and mythologizing the HRE and earlier periods, which left the Conservatives to focus on Prussia-Germany, and once you got down to what the defining tendencies of that period were I think it is impossible to ignore the technological and industrial progress of the period, which hopefully has made it an easier sell. I do think that the view of conservatism as simply defending the status quo is missing the mark somewhat - conservatism, imo at least, seems to be more about lionizing and mythologizing a particular period in history that they want the country to emulate to some degree or other: what values were important at the time, what was the geopolitical status of the country at the time, how was it governed and by whom was it governed? It isn't quite as simple as "oh what we have now is pretty nice, lets keep that", although the period being emulated can be very, very recent - if that distinction makes sense.
 
Personally I enjoy reading everything that's been posted here, however my area of knowledge is more political/military aspects of history, as opposed to cultural/societal. So generally I'll only comment on political and military developments.
I think that generally matches the trend in terms of the wider population of the board. There's a lot more attention to political and military aspects and much less input goes into social history. I say this as someone who entirely shares in this bias, BTW, so I'm not saying this reflects poorly on you or me or anyone else, it's just a state of affairs which probably deserves an appraising look. But I have come to believe, as I once did not, that this is a limitation rather than a feature, and it's more reflective of the likely demographics of alternate history writers and readers than it is of anything else. Honestly, while it's perfectly doable to focus a TL on some very narrow aspect (a commercial industry, a social issue, a specific domestic political issue etc), when it comes to a far-sweeping TL that seeks to map butterflies all over the world, the neat division kinda becomes untenable: the two halves really cannot operate in isolation and still give you a complete picture. This TL goes above and beyond in seeking to portray gender relations, ethnic minorities, cultural mores, inter-generational relations, religion, sexuality, and entertainment, and it's rare to see it done so thoroughly and so well in a TL that also focuses on the 20th century's political and military upheavals. It does make it harder to comment sometimes: it's still a gripping read but we lack the background to weigh in. Still, I admire the approach considerably and if I ever get around to writing a full-fledged TL here, I'll try to emulate @Zulfurium's approach!
 
Update Forty (Pt. 3): The World At The End Of The 1930s
The World At The End Of The 1930s

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The Three Gorges Dam

A World In Man's Image​

The Household Revolutionized


The average household and daily-life in Europe and North America would have seemed almost unrecognizable to those of a bare half century prior. Grocery shopping was simplified and eased by the emergence of supermarkets and grocery chains, with the first American chains emerging in California with Ralphs and New York with King Kullen early in the 1930s before proliferating across the country at a rapid pace, with established grocery chains such as Kroger and Safeway Inc forced to imitate the new supermarket model following the economic crisis of the mid-decade, Kroger in particular pioneering the idea of surrounding the supermarket on all four sides with parking lots - itself a response to the sudden surge in automobile ownership in the United States over the course of the early 1930s. This period was also marked by the proliferation of a variety of labor-saving machines which sought to reduce the amount of work needed to keep a household running, with many appliances finding more widespread usage as costs reduced and the quantity of appliances increased. Everything from washing machines, water heaters and refrigerators to sewing machines, dishwashers and clothes dryers found themselves subjected to machined automation - with the United States the clear front-runner in the use of these technologies in both commercial and private spheres. This period would also see the gradual emergence of freezers as a direct counterpoint to the older Icebox, although competition between the two models remained firmly in favor of the icebox for several more decades due to the development of mechanical ice machines in the early 1930s which made it possible to produce clean, sanitary ice independently and year-round, rather than having to purchase ice brought in from far away where the quality was always suspect (36).

Electrification more generally would present a massive revolution in the lives of many people around the globe during these years, particularly in second-grade markets which were only now starting to see the wider spread of electrification. While the United States and Great Britain worked to close out the few remaining gaps in their electrical grids, and electrify the last rural outposts, it would be the turn of the metropolises of Asia and South America to experience more widespread electrification. In Beijing, entire quarters of the city saw the first real introduction of household electrification, while the construction of electrical dams as part of the Central Plains Triangle Programme promised to offer much more widespread electrification of the numerous large cities which spread along the Yangtze, Yellow River and Grand Canal. In Chosun, Japanese exiles who had gotten used to more widespread access to electricity proved crucial in securing the complete electrification of Keijo and Heijo, while in Siam an entire campaign of urban electrification was put into action to complement the already extensive electrification of Bangkok. In the Soviet Republic the process of electrification would take nearly two decades to reach into Siberia, while the western heartlands around Moscow found both urban and rural electrification largely completed by 1933, with household electrification already well under way by the time of the Moscow Olympics. Led by the Russian engineer Ivan Alexandrov, the electrical needs of western Russia would be addressed primarily through the use of hydropower, of which Alexandrov was an undisputed international expert, with industrial development warping to follow the energy planning he laid out - energy-heavy industries being constructed around several of the massive hydroelectrical plants he worked to establish along many of the large rivers of the region (36).

Perhaps the most revolutionary technologies to proliferate during this period would be those related to the spreading of information and entertainment. Television, which had become a practical possibility in the mid-1920s, would begin to spread to an actual consumer base starting with Britain and United States in the late 1920s, with the technology spreading ever more in the years that followed. Ultimately, it would be with the Moscow Olympics, and the broadcasting thereof, that television as a consumer product can really be considered to have kicked off, with the establishment of regular broadcasting schedules, ever wider availability of the television sets to the consumer and a gradual decrease in the costs associated with owning a television all resulting in a booming industry by the closing years of the decade. Nevertheless, the technology would remain something of a novelty, without a wide user base - the potential of television being a much discussed topic, but its actual reach remaining limited. A significantly more developed, but equally rapidly changing, medium would prove to be cinema where the transition from silent films to sound and color caused a great deal of tension and difficulties, which allowed some countries to emerge stronger than others. Particularly Spanish cinema would infamously struggle to deal with the transition, in the process allowing many of its most prominent figures to transfer to the Portuguese scene, while French cinema struggled to transition to color films and the British, German as well as Soviet film scenes were able to make significant ground through the successful management of the transition. In the United States, and Hollywood in particular, it would not so much be the technical transition as the content restrictions imposed by the McAdoo Code which caused troubles and weakened viewership internationally where some of the more rigorous strictures of the code were publicly mocked and the resultant movies lambasted on more than one occasion. Nevertheless, the most prolific and significant information technology of the age would undoubtedly prove to be the radio, with technological breakthroughs in the early 1930s enabling the production of shockingly cheap radios, such that by the end of the decade it was a rare sight to find a household in the major European states without a radio. The result of all this was to be the proliferation of a common set of cultural touchstones, a common foundation for news and a common point of reference in people's daily lives. Radio dramas rose to incredible popularity, with the most successful catapulting their stars to international fame, while music became an ever greater part of people's daily lives - radio channels playing one sort of music or another seemingly around the clock. Sports broadcasting also had its rise to prominence during this period, with not only the Olympics but local football, handball and racing events all finding themselves broadcast in vivid details by commentators eager to bring new fans to their chosen sports (36).

Growing Man and Meal

The decades following the Great War would prove of immense significance for the development of agriculture and food production on a global scale. As with so many other things, the United States would prove a front runner in the development of modern agriculture, with the widespread adoption of mechanization, mass-scale of production and an utterly astounding level of agricultural capacity which repeatedly threatened to so undermine agricultural prices in the United States that an agricultural depression had to be staved off by government intervention. This was initially done through government support and the signing of a monumentally large trade deal with the British Empire which allowed the massive American agricultural overproduction an outlet - although this was to have tragic consequences down the line for the inhabitants of British Africa and the wider colonial population of the British Empire. This development, however, was eventually disrupted by the start of what came to be known as the Dust Bowl in which vast swathes of the American interior was exposed to intense drought and American agricultural production fell precipitously. While the Dust Bowl continued to wreak havoc, eventually requiring considerable government intervention under the Long Presidency with the formation of windbreaks as well as other soil conservation and anti-erosion efforts, to mention but some of the various drought relief efforts, the sudden decrease in domestic demand for agricultural tools led to the mass export of modern American agricultural tools - primarily to Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil, which in turn brought about a revolution in agricultural production across much of southern South America (37).

European agriculture would find itself significantly transformed in the decades following the Great War, with a few broad trends occurring on a wide-ranging scale. The most significant development to sweep across Europe, from Spain in the west to Poland and Romania in the east, would be the widespread breakup of ancient noble estates and the consolidation of small tracts of land into medium-sized land units which would prove of particularly excellent size to adapt to the agricultural modernization which swept the continent during these years. In Germany, the ancient Prussian Junker class found itself embroiled in immense economic crisis with vast numbers of large, backwards, estates falling into bankruptcy. While many of these Junkers would seek to impact the political sphere to secure government aid in helping their under-water estates back on an even keel, the ruling SPD government of the times would prove particularly hard-hitting in their critique of the Junkers, with SPD-aligned newspapers running repeated stories about the many ways in which large numbers of Junkers had wasted their money on luxury items - with even the conservative small-holders of Saxony, otherwise a bastion of agrarian conservatism, lining up behind the government as the flower of Prussian nobility were forced to sell off their estates. Here, finally, the government intervened in order to portion out smaller portions of the estates to be modernized for agricultural purposes while large tracts of former estate lands were placed under government authority as natural parks, hunting preserves and vacation sites for the entire German population. The seething rage which engulfed many of the dispossessed or nearly dispossessed Junkers would likely play a key role in bringing the Conservative Coalition under Chancellor Hergt to power, but by then it was far too late for the Junkers to reclaim their lost property- most of them finding themselves forced to make a living as part of the ever expanding state bureaucracy, the military or in private business, with the majority having maintained their city homes even as they were forced to surrender their rural estates. In Spain, the new Alfonsine Integralist state would embark on an ambitious reorganization of the country's rural structures, breaking up the few massive estates into more practical tracts of land while the extreme land fragmentation which had characterized the state of agriculture in Spain for centuries was addressed with shocking speed - the new land units being assigned to be run by corporations linked to integralist associations in a process which caused considerable social turmoil and chaos, but where the state's heavy handed efforts would ultimately see the countryside restructured and the pre-existing food price controls replaced by more direct state involvement in food production through the aforementioned associations. Major irrigation works were set into motion in an endeavor to address the problem of low yields while the large number of casual rural laborers who had previously made their livings working on the large latifundios found themselves forcefully integrated into associations where they were put to work without much say in the matter, their ability to move and seek new employment sharply curtailed while the actual working conditions improved marginally (37).

In France, this period was dominated largely by the appropriation of farmland by the peasant population itself, taking direct ownership in replacement of previous sharecropping or renting models which had predominated in the past, with rural banks and agricultural financing of modernization and mechanization soon experiencing a significant boom. This period would see the rise of distributist agrarian associations and guilds under the influence of Integralist organizations related to the Union de la Droite and inspired by similar reforms undertaken by the Portuguese government. This was to be mirrored by a Zollverein trend which emerged during this period - namely the proliferation of agricultural cooperatives primarily driven by Danish farmers who had involved themselves in organizing cooperatives in Russia before the Revolution, and had since shifted their attentions to the Zollverein with incredible success - particularly in the Baltics, Poland and the newly established farms of Eastern Prussia built out of old Junker estates. Notably, this period would see widescale modernization and mechanization across vast swathes of Eastern Europe, in large part funded by what would grow into truly massive Danish agricultural cooperatives based around Diary, Beef, Pork, Chicken and Wheat-products, with the cooperatives eventually running every part of the supply chain across half of Europe - making them amongst the largest and most powerful agricultural corporations in the world. Agricultural development in the Soviet Republic would take a somewhat different tack, organized as it was around the village commune outside of the mass-collectivized farms of the Ural region. Here modernization and mechanization would take time, and the agricultural production never quite reached a level where the Soviet Republic could be food independent, but there were few who could look upon the immense agricultural development of Russia - which was occurring at a scale and speed near-unheard in history - without being awestruck by the immense accomplishments of the past decades. While mechanization would remain a struggle, with the never-ending demands of the agricultural sector leaving the industrial side of affairs struggling to keep up with the growth of the communal farmlands (37).

The years following the Great War would see a number of significant steps forward in the realm of biological sciences and its related endeavors. Prior to the turn of the century, biology had been dominated by a focus on natural history, morphological and phylogenetic analyses, in preference to more experimental science. This had seen a marked change in the early 20th century as laboratory-based biology rose to prominence and a variety of new disciplines, theories and discoveries were made. One of the particularly significant developments of this period was the emergence of ecology and environmental science - with the study and experimentation within semi-controlled natural environments such as gardens or greenhouses introducing a whole new approach to zoology, botany and wider ecological studies, with a particular focus on the emergent studies of ecological succession, biogeography, limnology and food chains all pioneering new quantitative methods while gradually starting to find synthesis into a wider study of ecology which itself began to impact national agricultural policies. At the same time, major developments within the field of biochemistry began to give people a much better understanding of the inner workings of the body, with a particular focus on vitamins and metabolism developing during these years. Biochemists such as Hans Krebs, Carl Cori and Gerty Cori made major discoveries in the field of the citric acid cycle, glycogenesis and glycolysis as well as the synthesis of steroids and porphyrins, which were soon being used in medical trials in Germany - which was itself rising to an incredible position of prominence due to the incredible technological strides made by particularly prominent German Jews such as Hans Krebs and Max Perutz (38).

One field which would see immense growth and development during this period would prove to be microbiology following the independent discoveries of bacteriophages by the British bacteriologist Frederick Twort and the French-Canadian Félix d'Hérelle - pioneering the ideas of phage therapy, whereby bacteriophages were introduced to combat bacterial infections. While d'Hérelle's discovery had been made in Paris, it would be in Georgia that phage therapy would make its first major strides forward. Convinced by his colleague Giorgi Eliava to move to Georgia with him, d'Hérelle would find strong government backing for his experiments, which were soon put into use following the Don Republic's Invasion of Georgia in the early 1930s with stunning results. With German military advisors prominently present in the theater to witness the effectiveness of their latest generation of weaponry, the stunning recoveries of soldiers treated for bacterial infections at the frontlines would catapult the new field to the forefront of military medicine in Germany, with phages soon making an incredible rise to prominence as a treatment for bacterial infections. However, phages would not be the only anti-bacterial therapy to emerge during this period as in Britain a series of major technological breakthroughs would eventually lead to the development of fungal anti-bacterial cultures with a series of major investments and experiments by the University of Oxford eventually culminating in the development of penicillin - a fungal extract capable of seemingly miraculous effects of an anti-bacterial nature. Thus was set the stage for what would prove to be a long-term clash of anti-bacterial remedies, with phages proliferating across much of the Zollverein and into the Soviet Republic and in time the Far East while penicillin and other antibiotics like it rose to prominence in Britain and the United States before proliferating into Western Europe and South America. Nevertheless, some scientists on both sides of the divide would experiment with the utility of their respective counterpart technologies - although the findings of these experiments would often be met with skepticism (38).

In 1900 three different biologists arrived at what would come to be known as Mendel's Laws, named concepts of biological inheritance initially proposed by Gregor Mendel in the mid-1800s, and soon after cell biologists proposed that chromosomes were where the hereditary material resided in the cell. During the period between 1910 and 1915 Thomas Hunt Morgan would link these two concepts, having quantified the phenomenon of genetic linkage through experiments in his fly lab exploring the inheritance patterns of white-eyed fruit flies. Nevertheless, it would take until the post-Great War era for Mendelian-chromosome theory to secure widespread acceptance alongside the emergence of population genetics as a field of study - in the process unifying the ideas of evolution by natural selection with Mendelian genetics. This would pave the way for the emergence of molecular biology and the study of genetics while concurrent explorations of phages would lead to the development of microbiology through the unification of virology and bacteriology, with the German biologist Max Delbrück making a series of major discoveries in his study of bacteriophages which would help lead to the synthesis of the two fields. The early 1930s would see the first images of viruses obtained through the invention of electron microscopy by the German engineers Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll, while Delbrück would discover that viruses reproduced in one-step, not exponentially as cellular organisms would (38).

All of these developments in biology would have a real impact upon the development of industry, with the Hungarian Károly Ereky coining the term "biotechnology" to describe the technology based upon converting biological raw materials into more useful products. Ereky would prove a pioneer in the creation of the modern slaughterhouse and building a fattening farm with space for 50,000 pigs, capable of raising over 100,000 pigs in a year. The largest and most profitable meat and fat operation in the world, Ereky would find his plant the focus of intense study by particularly Danish pork farmers connected to the ever-expanding cooperatives spreading across the Zollverein, with the learnings from his experiments soon proliferating not just amongst pork farms across Europe but into other animal husbandry sectors as well. At the same time the Great War would mark a period of immense development as Max Delbrück grew yeast on an immense scale, sufficient to meeting 60 percent of Germany's animal feed needs, while lactic acid was produced as a stand in for glycerol - the industrial potential of fermentation outgrowing its origins in the brewing industry many times over - with penicillin the most dramatic discovery of the fermentation-based processes being explored during this period (38).

Eugenics would continue to feature prominently in both the scientific and societal discourse of the 1920s and 1930s, with Germany and Scandinavia at the heart of the European Eugenics Movement. In Sweden and Denmark initially voluntary sterilization schemes gave way to forced sterilization of select population groups - primarily targeting those suffering from handicaps or to a lesser extent mental illness. However, with the proliferation of positive eugenics measures in Germany, influenced in large part by the ideas popularized by the German Proletkult movement, it would not take long before the eugenics dialogue in Scandinavia shifted away from negative eugenics, with government incentives for improved health, numbers of children and test results proliferating amongst an entire bevy of social experiments which coincided with the larger establishment of the Scandinavian Welfare System. Perhaps the single most important figure to emerge within the German eugenics movement was to be Otmar von Verschuer, whose position as head of department for Human Genetics at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics placed him at the very forefront of the movement. Deeply interested in the evolution of genetics, von Verschuer would prove a leading figure in pushing for greater genetics research with an eye towards a far more scientifically rigorous form of eugenics - increasingly decrying the current negative eugenic approaches as little short of barbaric fumbling in the dark. Perhaps his most capable pupil would prove to be Josef Mengele, whose focus on the genetic factors resulting in cleft lip, palate and chin - his cum laude doctorate thesis from the University of Frankfurt on the topic leading many to believe him to be the most likely inheritor of von Verschuer's role as leading German voice on genetically-based eugenics (39).

Meanwhile, in the United States eugenics found itself increasingly embroiled in the larger race-based strife of the period as the McAdoo government's tenure first saw the proliferation of race-based immigration restrictions, anti-miscegenation laws and widespread adoption of sterilization in wide swathes of the country on the basis of eugenic arguments, only for the Progressive movement to turn against the movement as a whole - connecting it to the policies of the Democratic Party, its nativists and racists, despite the long history of Progressive involvement in the eugenics movement. While the Long Administration sought to chip away at the restrictions of the immigration acts, rightly believing that many of their most significant bases of support lay outside the traditional WASP community, which these policies were designed to protect, while tackling miscegenation legislation at the state level as a sign of Klan involvement in states affairs - and as such the target of intense government scrutiny. Nevertheless, the Long government would continue support for positive eugenics interventions with events such as the "Scientific Baby Contest" and the "Fitter Families for Future Firesides" which sought to promote widespread health initiatives amongst the population in the belief that it would improve the health and capabilities of the babies born of such families seeing government funding. While compulsory sterilization laws would find themselves overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court in the Buck v. Bell case of 1927, the matter would see continual challenges from negative eugenicists throughout the 1930s before the shift was made away from compulsory sterilization towards voluntary sterilization. Even in the African-American community eugenics would find its proponents, with W.E.B Du Bois amongst the foremost figures championing the widespread use of birth control to help deal with the social and economic troubles faced by African-American communities - with resultant changes to birth control legislation actively championed by the eugenics movement and the American Breeders' Association in favor of providing easier access to birth control amongst minorities and poverty-stricken population groups (39).

In the Far East, ideas of eugenics would start to proliferate during the early 1930s, with the Japanese particularly focused on formulating limits on the number of births of children with "inferior" traits. Nevertheless, the outbreak of the Japanese Civil War would interrupt most such efforts, with the new Shogunate government much more disposed towards policies of population uplift and positive eugenic measures as were widely championed by the Soviet Republic. Instead it would be in Chosun where the most significant efforts would be undertaken. While there were some convictions that the Korean population was of an "inferior constitution" the government would actively seek to promote Japanese-Korean intermarriage, with the use of serological studies seeking to prove that Japanese and Koreans had the same "pure" ancestral origin in an effort to ease such types of worry - although significant reluctance would persist on both sides. Nevertheless, the introduction of the ideas of "blood purity" would spread into Korean society as well, with the idea of an ethnically homogenous Korean nation based on a single divine bloodline gaining considerable prominence in some circles - just one of many ways in which the Korean part of Chosun society sought to distance itself from its Japanese rulers. In China Eugenics would be much debated, with particularly Pan Guangdan emerging as a prominent voice on the issue - his works promoting family structures and traditional marriages over individualism, believing these polygamic structures to be the most effective means of "racial improvement" through biological inheritance. There would prove to be a great deal of interest in matters of family planning, population healthcare and the study of genetics amongst the Fengtian scientific and political community, with Zhang Xueliang particularly fascinated by Pan Guangdan's arguments about traditional family structures and its benefits for spreading genetic change. Pan would, however, prove a major critic of the anthropological categorization of "race", holding it to be as yet scientifically substantiated, and that Eugenics should avoid becoming entangled in dubious claims of racial superiority - the goal being rather to improve the population's germplasm within its own population rather than intervening in other populations. This claim would find some adherents, and form part of a wider anti-racialist eugenics tendency which found adherents in particularly the United States and the Latin Pact, with Spain a prominent anti-racialist force with significant opposition to negative eugenics due to the influence of Catholic religious convictions (39).

Building The World Of Tomorrow

The decades following the Great War would be characterized not so much by the development of revolutionary new industrial technologies and techniques, but rather the proliferation and continued development of pre-existing technological breakthroughs. The period was marked by the final transition away from steam towards gas, combustion and electrification on a wide scale. Mass production, beginning with the automobile but spreading to countless other sectors and industries, would come about as a result of widespread adoption of assembly lines on the model pioneered at the Ford Factories of Detroit while truly massive factories were established on a scale rarely before seen across the globe. In the Urals the Soviets built some of the largest heavy industrial facilities in the world, drawing in hundreds of thousands of workers in the quest to reshape and rebuild Russia from the ground up while in China industrial techniques pioneered in Manchuria under the Fengtian Clique were put into operation across northern China as part of the grand Central Plains Triangle Programme - the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze proving amongst the largest hydroelectrical plants in the world upon its completion in late 1938. New developments in heavy machinery from tractors and bulldozers to forklifts, bucket wheel excavators and tracked commercial vehicles would open up for an entirely new scale of construction work with the 1930s becoming famed for the widespread building of skyscrapers in the Soviet Republic, Eastern Europe, East Asia and Latin America - although in Europe a nostalgia for the traditional city scape, as well as the widespread presence of conservative movements in these countries, would see strict limitations on the scale, location and commonality of skyscrapers. Nevertheless, Socialist Italy would prove amongst the most active adopters of new building styles and approaches as they sought to rebuild the country after its devastating civil war, with the consequent development of pre-fabricated short-term housing in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War and the construction of several massive skyscrapers demonstrating the vitality and capacity of the new revolutionary state (40).

These years would prove themselves a time of significant technological breakthrough, although the uses of these technologies would take time to move from experimental prototyping to more widespread usage. The first of these was the discovery of new forms of plastics and their potential for mass production beginning with polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride, with polyethylene the most significant early discovery in 1933 - although it would take until the late 1930s before replication had been achieved and mass production remained illusive. This period would see the discovery of polyadditions for the synthesis of polyurethane as well as the development of synthetic dyes, rubber, prontosil and chloroquine during this period with the German Gerhard Domagk being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1939 for the "discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil". The field of computing would also find itself shocked to its foundations during this period by the achievements of the British Alan Turing as well as the Germans Kurt Gödel and Konrad Zuse as they set the groundwork for the creation of digital computing. Kurt Gödel would prove himself one of the most significant logicians of the era through his formulation of the incompleteness theorem in 1930, ending half a century of attempts to find a set of axioms sufficient for all mathematics, with Turing using this understanding of the limits of proof and computation to create the simple hypothetical device known as the Turing Machine - proving that such machines would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical computation if it were representable as an algorithm. This understanding would function as the theoretical foundation for Zuse's incredible achievements of electro-mechanical engineering a few years later, known to posterity as the first Computer. Following the first attempt at the Z1 in 1936 Zuse would secure several patents the following year, helping to create the necessary sections for him to build the finished Z1 in 1938 out of some 30,000 metal parts. His accomplishment would come to the attentions of the large German electrical engineering corporation Siemens-Schuckert, which became part-owners of Zuse's new corporation "Zuse Apparatebau" in mid-1938. With funding and Siemens' know-how supporting his efforts at transitioning from analog-to-digital, Zuse was able to continue the development of his machine - Kurt Gödel getting involved in the project in late 1938 at the instigation of the military, who were themselves growing interested in Zuse's machines. The resultant Z2 would be finish construction in late 1939, with plans for further improvements already under way as the year came to an end (40).

This period would also see considerable development in the form of fast and comfortable long distance travel as railroad, automobile and aircraft all became widely available to the public. For railroads, much of the groundwork had already been done in many parts of Western Europe and the United States, but with the establishment of the Zollverein and German influence on transportation policies in the related countries there would be a major effort at securing alignment between rail gauges across the region, with the standard-gauge railway replacing the more widespread narrow-gauge in both eastern and south-eastern Europe such that one could travel from one end of the Zollverein to the other without the need to change gauge by the end of the 1930s. In the Soviet Republic major gauge-shifts were occurring as well, with some of the most important rail lines being replaced due to the immense amount of railway traffic brought about through the German-Soviet trade partnership - the process proving expensive and troublesome, with these changes resulting in a period of turmoil in the Soviet railway system before much of Western Russia stretching into the Ural region was regauged, although in Siberia the narrow gauge would remain prevalent due to the extreme costs and difficulties involved in changing the existing rail-lines. In China, the Fengtian regime would deftly exploit the chaos in Japan in order to nationalize the vast railway network possessed by them in China proper, with the South Manchuria Railway Company, Chinese Eastern Railway, Central China Railway and more all finding themselves absorbed into the state-owned Imperial Chinese Railway - which was already developing a massive network of railway lines tying together the Central Plains Triangle at the time. As for the locomotives themselves, an intense competition would emerge between diesel and electrical locomotives during the 1930s in the United States, with Ingersoll-Rand, American Locomotive Company, Westinghouse Electric and Baldwin Locomotive Works all competing in the development of hybrid diesel-electric locomotives, even as diesel locomotives took over almost all traffic in the Zollverein (41).

This period would also see the coming-of-age of the automobile, with the inventions of hydraulic brakes, automatic transmission, front-wheel drive, tempered glass and more all bringing about a new age of the automobile. The cabin grew more enclosed, the capabilities of the car more pronounced and aerodynamic designs, influenced by aviation breakthroughs, led to a wholly changed look and feel to the machines. This would also be the period in which low-cost automobiles first began to proliferate, with the French Citroën introducing the first low-cost automobile in 1937 - wherefrom it would proliferate across the Latin Pact countries, proving itself amongst the most popular vehicles in the world. With the spread of automobiles came the widespread creation of motorways, a separate road for the traffic of fast vehicles. While the first such roads were built in northern Italy, linking Milan to Bologna, and in Germany, it would be in France that the motorway would find its most widespread home in Europe - an ambitious roadbuilding project being set in motion by one of the many short-lived governments of the mid-1930s, with the first stretch connecting Paris to Reims while the second linked it to Amiens. In Germany the SPD would seek to emphasize the use of public transportation more, and as such while motorways were constructed it was at a significantly slower pace and largely at the direction of the individual German states rather than the federal German government (41).

This left only aviation as the last great frontier in the development of transportation services, with the Great War having brought an immense number of new innovations and capabilities to the fore. The first aerial transport capable of taking passengers would prove to be the Airship, with the image of the majestic floating airship becoming an emblematic symbol of the period. The period would see the adoption of airships for passenger travel, the crossing of the Atlantic in 1919, a visit to the North pole in 1928 and in 1929 a highly publicized world circumnavigation by the state-of-the-art German "Graf Zeppelin" airship. Several extraordinarily large airships would be constructed during the 1930s from the British R101 and R102 to the German "Bismarck" and "Stresemann" airships. There were several smaller crashes in the 1932-33 period, alongside two with fatalities, but it would prove insufficient to dampen the wider interest in airships, with regular routes soon being run not only across the Atlantic or within Europe, but across Asia and more rarely to Africa as well - Zhang Xueliang famously making his return to China from a state visit in Germany aboard the "Bismarck" in the early 1930s with stops in Istanbul, Bombay and Hong Kong before landing at Qingdao. Nevertheless, the 1930s would see the development of monoplanes to a point where they could begin to challenge the increasingly ubiquitous Airships for dominance of the heavens. While long-distance flights by aviation pioneers blazed new trails for commercial airliners to follow, the initial half of the 1930s would be dominated by large water-capable airplanes such as those produced by Dornier and Sikorsky due to the lack of modern runways, but by the latter half of the decade this trend was beginning to turn and airfields began to appear near almost every major city in Europe and the United States - with the rest of the world swift to follow this development. Nevertheless, heavier-than-air flight continued to be seen as a rather dangerous prospect compared to airships, and would remain something of a fringe form of mass transportation for the remainder of the decade. Nevertheless, major steps forward in the development of the jet engine and turbine engines as well as significant strides in the stability and reliability of heavier-than-air airplanes would open up the prospect of a true challenger to the airship's dominance (41).

The Weapons Of The Next War

The military development kicked off by the Great War never truly came to an end, despite the hopes and prayers of pacifists and the war-weary public who sought to regulate and limit warfare through the signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam. While the Great War had come to an end through diplomatic intervention, the military leaders of all the countries involved in the fighting were well aware of the central role played by particularly the military campaigns of 1917 and 1918 in forcing the war to a close - with particularly the Caporetto Offensive, German 1918 Spring Offensives and the Allied Counter-Offensives of 1918 and 1919 studied in intense detail by both sides of the conflict to determine what had worked and what hadn't. While military doctrine and the finances of warfare shifted throughout this period, it was unavoidable that all parties remained highly alert to the threat posed by a second Great War, with a great deal of military resources being dedicated to addressing precisely such an occurrence. Military technology would follow similar tendencies, with a constant eye towards potential military confrontations between any of the major European powers throughout the 1920s. With the sudden increase in international tensions and the rise of colonial conflicts to the fore during the first half of the 1930s, spending patterns and research would see a moderate shift towards better addressing the unique challenges of a colonial military campaign - with particularly the French military making massive shifts in its budget allocations and research, focusing on the development of modern weaponry and tools better suited to a broad spectrum of climatic zones - a challenge which they had already paid dearly to learn in Indochina. Throughout the first decade and a half following the Amsterdam Treaty, naval forces remained relatively stagnant and constant, with only limited refitting and technological impetus outside of fringe areas such as naval aviation, navigation and radar. This would all change with shocking speed following the bloody lessons taught by the Battle of the East China Sea. Naval Admiralties around the world took notice of the shocking new technological breakthroughs and doctrinal developments used by the Japanese to secure victory and it was not long before they were clamoring for major budgetary expansions to respond to the suddenly changed naval dynamic (42).

In the United States, the cataclysmic experience of fighting at St. Mihiel, the Argonne and the Four Rivers Offensive would make it clear that neglecting the military could well be a potentially fatal mistake and as such the Wood Administration would set out to ensure that the post-Great War Army would maintain a force of a full 300,000 regulars while the National Guard was officially authorized to recruit some 500,000 men - although the Organized Reserves would see recruitment of only some 50,000 and a pool of reserve officers. Nevertheless, while the initial budgetary allocations under the Wood Presidency would meet the requests of the General Staff - and the demobilized military got off to a good start in its transition to peacetime - the election of McAdoo would result in the military's congressional budgets finding itself ever more restricted, reaching a low point of around 60% of the yearly funding requested in 1930. The result of this financial decline was to be sharp budgetary cuts - the Organized Reserves shrinking to simply a pool of reserve officers, the National Guard declining by more than half to 200,000 from its highest point of manpower in 1923 at 420,000, while the regular army struggled to meet its targets - the quality of food, training and armaments dropping drastically. While the Curtis Administration would help to alleviate some of the budgetary constraints - meeting around 80% of the requested budgets - this would fall dramatically once again following the economic depression set in motion by the Black Week in the mid-1930s. While the Long Administration would prove more in line with the Curtis Administration than the McAdoo Administration in its willingness to help pay for the American military's needs, the financial constraints of the period would nevertheless result in a further decrease in budgetary allocations - although the appointment of the highly regarded James K. Parsons, one of the most forceful proponents of racial integration, to serve as Chief of Staff of the US Army and Brigadier General Norman F. Ramsey as Chief of Ordinance, working hand-in-hand to navigate the dire financial situation would help to ease some of the most significant budgetary constraints facing the American military. Despite these troubles, the Americans would produce one of the most innovative fast tanks in the world on the basis of J. Walter Christie's Christie suspension system and a very high power-to-weight ratio in the form of the Christie M1933, with Parsons playing a key role in securing support for the tank despite its relatively high cost. As the decade neared its end, the American military remained in a state of underfunded crisis, with continual budgetary restrictions, but the organization was finding the footing it had lost during the late-1920s and early 1930s once more and seemed to be adjusting to the current realities of its economic circumstances (42).

In Britain it would be the figure of Major General J.F.C. Fuller who would dominate the study of tank warfare, with his emphasis on combined-arms formations and unity between artillery, infantry, military engineers and tanks a key feature - emphasizing light and fast units capable of rapid advance and maneuver - with Fuller's leadership of the Experimental Mechanized Force in the leadup to the Two Rivers Crisis putting him in a prime position for promotion and a rise in support for military spending within Britain. With Fuller's theories taking over the field, it did not take long before a purchase of an earlier prototype of the Christie M1933 was effected - allowing for the introduction of the Christie suspension system in future British tanks. The focus in Britain would be upon a small, highly mechanized, army while the Navy continued to dominate military spending - with further advances in not only the construction of battleships, battlecruisers and heavy cruisers undertaken, but also meaningful strides being taken in new sonar technologies as well as hydrophones and radar. The technological advances would be implemented primarily in the Home Fleet, focused as it was on checking the German Navy, with the result that the Dominion Fleet was significantly underequipped with these new innovations when it went to face the Japanese fleet in the East China Sea. By contrast, the initial investments into naval aviation by the Dominion Fleet would leave the British somewhat slow to invest resources into the new naval dimension - most considering a more direct clash of battleships a much more likely proposition in the constrained waters of the North Sea. In the field of aerial development more generally the British would lag behind their continental counterparts - the focus centering primarily on the use of British air power for colonial campaigns and close defense of the Home Isles, with research and development of heavy bombers particularly restrained - a preference for fighter-bombers which could be better used against colonial targets seeing the field neglected. This trend would, however, change with the election of Stanley Baldwin to Prime Minister - Baldwin having long warned of the dangers posed by bombers tot he general public, with resultant investments in both bomber and anti-bomber technology and doctrines taking more of a central role following his rise to power in the late 1930s (42).

The early 20th century had not been a happy time for Spanish military fortunes, with multiple disastrous failures in the conflicts with the Americans, Cubans and Filipinos leading to the institution seeing a precipitous decline in prestige. While subsequent campaigns in North Africa would eventually turn this around, with King Alfonso riding the resultant wave of support to his autocoup, it nevertheless stressed to the King the rather dismal state of the Spanish military and the infrastructure which surrounded it. The majority of Spanish arms, in fact most of the military's arms, were licensed versions of foreign armaments - this despite the fact that Spain actually had a rather active and healthy arms industry, if one marked predominantly by small gunsmiths rather than largescale corporations. Thus, when Alfonso was establishing his Associations, one of his primary industries of focus would prove to be that of armaments, with the forcible consolidation of the countless small producers into three large geographically-based state enterprises with part-ownership from their associations which would provide the blueprint and standards for their members. While a lengthy and often contentious process which saw many of the smaller gunsmiths shut down or forcibly absorbed by their larger counterparts, by the latter half of the 1930s the Spanish Arms Industry would begin to produce independent arms - often drawing inspiration from particularly German arms, but soon bringing to bear the unique pieces of knowledge which each little smithy had hoarded in the past, with a resultant increase in capability coming about as a result. The most famous of the initial arms to be developed by one of the three new corporations would be Labora Rifle which the marksman Carlos Enosa used to secure silver in the 600 meter military rifle competition at the 1936 Moscow Olympics - only losing out to the Finnish Simo Hayha who swept many of the rifle competitions that year. Nevertheless, the most advanced technology to come out of Spain during this period would be the invention and development of the helicopter and its single-rotor sibling the autogyro. Led by the civil engineer and aeronautical engineer Juan de la Cierva y Codorniu, the Spanish would make multiple major leaps forward with financial backing from the Alfonsine government as well as the industrialist and future French Prime Minister Jacques Arthuys, with the technology reaching a level of maturity by the mid-1930s where prototyping could give way to industrial production. While other countries, particularly Germany and the Soviet Republic, would also make strides in helicopter technology and development, they would continue to lag behind Spanish accomplishments quite significantly for the time being (43).

Nevertheless, it would be the French who would come to be regarded as the most formidable military power of the Latin Pact nations, with their weapons and licenses being amongst the most widely used - including for tanks and aircraft - on a global basis. Nevertheless, the first French post-Great War experiments in tanks would prove a rather ignominious affair, with dismal failures in both Georgia and Indochina putting the French arms industry at risk. It would be the rapid retooling and adaptation of the subsequent years, with the weaponry constantly tested in battle against the Indochinese, that would see the French Tanks such as Renault's R34 emerge as the premier light tank in the world, capable of duty in jungle and desert, and the SOMUA S35 as the most effective Medium Tank of the period - possessing an incomparable combination of armor, firepower and mobility which surpassed even their German and Bohemian counterparts. Nevertheless, the true crowning jewel of French military technology would be its aeronautics, with the vastly expanded corporation Nieuport, a merger of Nieuport-Delage, Latécoère and Amiot, producing some of the most advanced fighters in the world - including the first all-metal under-wing monoplane, the most prevalent French main-force fighter, the NP102, and the majority of French reconnaissance planes, which secured fame for their performance in Indochina - while Société des Avions Marcel Bloch designed one of the best reconnaissance bombers of the period in the Bloch MB.170 and the long-range Bloch MB.155 Bomber - amongst the fastest and longest ranging bombers in Europe during this period (43).

For the Soviet Republic, and by extension many of its Communist clients and allies, the emphasis would be on rugged equipment capable of use in many different climates - from the frozen Siberian tundra to the forests of the far east, the steppes of central Asia or the deserts of Iran - while building upon the pre-existing Russian arms industry. At the same time, the relatively robust military control system established during the 1930s would help to greatly improve the process of approving new arms models, with the competition for small arms a particularly intense affair even with a modernized Mosin-Nagant from 1930 taking up the vast majority of Soviet small arms usage. With the Soviet emphasis on futuristic achievements they were able to create some of the most robust aerial designs in the world - partially achieved through close cooperation with German and Bohemian aviation designers during the early 1930s - with numerous experiments undertaken to improve aerial handling in rough weather and an emphasis on an ability to turn sharply resulting in airplanes which, while not the fastest, often proved themselves surprisingly adept dogfighters. Under the leadership of the harshly disciplinarian Yakov Alksnis, who was appointed to head the Soviet Air Force following the Trotskyite Affair, the professionalism and capabilities of the Soviet Air Force increased by leaps and bounds. By contrast, the development of a native Soviet tank would prove a troubled affair, with the Soviet military having relied heavily upon particularly the French Renault FT and later a license of the Škoda ST vz.28 - most Soviet tank designs prior to this failing to find much of a footing, being too light or slow to be of much use. It would be with the introduction of the ST-28 in 1931 that the Soviets finally secured a framework from which they could develop their own models in a more successful direction. While the initial adaptations to the ST-28 would focus on improved rough-terrain capabilities and improvements to the mobility of the tank, the demonstration of the prevalence of tank-on-tank combat during the Georgian Campaign would result in a shift towards emphasizing the more directly offensive and defensive aspects of the vehicle, with the introduction of sloped armor and increased caliber of guns resulting in the revolutionary T-33 Medium Tank. One major clash which was to develop during this period was between those who advocated a single or two turrets and those who called for multiple turrets, with rival designs in the SMK and KV series of heavy tanks particularly notable, while a series of light tanks building on both Soviet experiences from the 1920s and from Japanese light tank clashes during the Japanese Civil War would result in major progress, with the establishment of the MS-series of light tanks - although few of these designs would ever really satisfy the military leadership, who instead focused resources into the medium tank series which followed the T-33 (44).

While the military capabilities of the various states of the world were considerable, there were none who doubted whether Germany possessed the most well developed land-based military in the world. From tanks and mechanized infantry to aviation, artillery and leadership - Germany were top class in every single aspect. German tanks would be amongst the most highly regarded in the world, with copious amounts of research and development going into not just the machinery itself but the military doctrines to which they were being designed. With the technological edge provided by Germany's large industrial cartels and research institutes, who pumped out immense amounts of research and technological innovations, the German tanks continued on from their development at the tail-end of the Great War with considerable focus on speed and reliability - the use of tanks to create and exploit breakthroughs had been demonstrated time after time, and an emphasis upon the development of large mechanized combined forces of tanks, infantry and artillery would dominate the military thinking of the 1920s, although financial restrictions would hamper larger-scale implementation, with the focus being upon technological development and prototyping until the outbreak of the Two Rivers Crisis led to a major shift in civilian attitudes, and major budgetary increases for the German Military. The result was to see the widespread mechanization of German soldiery and the development of three major tank series, the Sturm-series of heavy assault tanks, the Blitz-series of highly mobile medium tanks and the LK-series of light tanks, which were selected after significant testing and prototyping to be mass produced in 1935. The German Luftstreitkräfte would come under the capable leadership of Walter Wever, who had served as one of the principal advocates for strategic bombing during the 1920s, resulting in immense strides in bomber technology with particularly Dornier and Junkers producing a series of significant designs which would in time provide Germany with a clear bomber superiority over any potential opponent in Europe. At the same time, the German aircraft manufacturers Focke-Wulf, BFW, Fokker and Albatros provided intense competition in the development of German fighter planes, with all four competing intensively in all classes of fighter aircraft. Notably, while Germany pushed ever onwards with its technological development, it would refrain from spreading these developments to their Eastern European clients, instead relying upon the Bohemian Skoda Works and licenses therefrom to help arm their client forces - although it must be mentioned that Skoda would secure numerous contracts and partnerships with German arms producers, thereby enabling a significant degree of knowledge transfer (45).

Theory Made Real

The first half of the Twentieth Century was a period of immense new leaps forward in humanity's understanding of the world - in the fields of physics, mathematics and chemistry the fundamental understanding of how the world functioned and its base elements were in a state of constant flux and development, with new theories and understandings incredibly widespread. At the heart of it all lay Germany, a bastion of theoretical sciences and the vanguard of new technological developments. From Göttingen, Münich and Copenhagen, massive steps in particular the theory of physics occurred under the leadership and direction of Max Born, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, with students and theoreticians from the entire world flocking to the Zollverein to learn more. Amongst the most distinct figures of this group would be Italian Enrico Fermi whose work both as part of the Göttingen study group and as a professor in Rome would help to catapult Italian science to a position of international fame with his accomplishments in statistical mechanics, quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics. With the support of the eager Socialist government, Fermi and a team of researchers who counted amongst their number the equally talented theoretical physicist Ettore Majorana would conduct the first large-scale experiments in atomic reaction. Constantly corresponding with and drawing support from the Göttingen group, Fermi's research team would seek to create the first nuclear reactor in a series of experiments stretching from 1934-1937 which resulted in an immense amount of workable data which would come to circulate in the Zollverein's physics community, before financial constraints and the growing scale of the experiments led to debates over whether to suspend the project (46).

Further notable achievements during this period would come from Germany with Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann performing similar experiments in Berlin between 1935 and 1938 - culminating in the discovery of fission through the splitting of uranium with neutrons in 1938 - while the Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard, working out of Münich, realized that neutron-driven fission of heavy atoms could be used to create nuclear chain reactions in 1934. After a series of experiments, Szilard published the results in the following year to great shock in the scientific community - who began to consider both the civilian and military potential of their recent discoveries. While the military capabilities remained vague but frightening, these developments would serve as the groundwork for the Italian government's investments in nuclear energy - the hope being to achieve greater energy independence from Germany, which at the time provided nearly half of all Italy's coal demand. With funding running out on Fermi's experiments, the Italian government were left to determine whether to discontinue the effort or seek external help - particularly the ascension of a conservative government under Chancellor Hergt in Germany causing considerable worries as to the continued Italo-German relationship. Ultimately the decision was made to negotiate with the Germans, eventually resulting in the formation of a joint research project between the two nations which saw the project shifted north to the University of Innsbruck under the direction of the Austrian-German Nobel Laureate Victor Francis Hess and Fermi, with both the Göttingen and Münich circles soon recruited heavily to support the project with German financial backing. Working on the university's grounds a distance from the city of Innsbruck, the project would draw in Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Otto Hahn, Emmy Noether, Wilhelm Hanle, Lise Meitner, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Max Planck amongst many others - in many estimations producing the single greatest gathering of intellect in the history of humankind. After a series of initial starts-and-stops, with several troubles, and brewing disagreements amongst the scientists, the first functioning nuclear reactor, known as AR-1, would be successfully completed in early 1940 (46).

Central Europe was, however, not alone in the development of nuclear technologies - merely a very clear frontrunner. In the United States, physicists such as Robert Oppenheimer, Julian Schwinger and Richard Feynman all engaged in both the development of particle sciences and quantum theories while astronomists such as Edwin Hubble and Vesto Slipher sought to expand the understanding of the universe through measurements of galactic nebulae. Asia was not without its leading lights either, with the Japanese Tomonaga Sinichiro and Hideki Yukawa seeking to explore fundamental particles and quantum electrodynamics while the female Chinese scientist Wu Chien Shiung made waves in the German physicist community following her visit to Göttingen for graduate studies in the mid-1930s despite being barely into her twenties - wherefrom she would go on to serve as a premier figure at the Institute of Physics in the Academia Sinica. From India it would be the incredible mathematical talents of the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan on an ocean of different topics and Satyendra Nath Bose's work on quantum mechanics which shook the global scientific community - demonstrating that the intellectual sphere could expect many more prominent voices to make their mark in the intellectual dialogue from Asia. The Soviet Republic would not be left out either, with particularly Pyotr Kapitsa a prominent figure in the Russian physics community - although much of his work was done in joint research with former classmates from the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge under the direction of the New Zealander Ernest Rutherford. The discovery of fission in 1938 by Otto Hahn's team in Berlin would provoke great excitement amongst the Soviet scientific community with particularly Yakov Frenkel, Georgy Flyrov and Igor Kurchatov playing a central role in helping to build government interest in these technological breakthroughs - resulting in the establishment of the Laboratory on Nuclear Technologies at the Moscow State University, which would prove the central driving force of nuclear research within the Third International in 1939 (46).

Footnotes:
(36) There are some butterflies and changes from OTL in this section, but outside of some of the natural outgrowths of butterflies in particularly the Soviet Republic and Asia most of this is at least superficially similar to OTL. One of the things that continually strikes me about this period is how massively changed people's daily lives must have been from when they were born. Radio going from a small experimental technology before the Great War to what it became is incredible. One of the things I think we take for granted is how widely available music is to anyone and everyone - it really isn't a challenge to find some nice music to listen to, and it hasn't been since the proliferation of the radio. But before that? You actually needed to go out and find someone to play music for you, or you needed to make it for yourself. The rest of it is significant as well, of course, with the automatization of the household massively decreasing the amount of time and work that is needed to keep a household running, electrification opening up for all sorts of opportunities and the shift towards supermarkets opening up for a vast new world of products which would previously have been both very expensive and difficult to find.

(37) The American developments have been mentioned at varying points during the TL already, but the European side of things hasn't really been covered yet. The German developments are basically a complete 180 from OTL, where the Junkers ended up getting government support in what proved to be an absolutely massive scandal. Here the SPD, in yet another show of dauntless determination which comes back to bite them, bulldoze through the Junkers objections and force them to sell off their bankrupt estates - in the process paving the way for a largescale modernization of Prussian agriculture. The Danish Cooperative Movement mentioned here is actually an OTL development, but with the way Denmark ends up serving as sort of a key-hole into and out of the Zollverein, I though the cooperatives were perfectly placed to come in and really take a massive role in the development of Eastern European agriculture - particularly since they tried to do so even IOTL under significantly more challenging circumstances. We will get into the distributists a lot more next update when we deal with the integralist economic model, but basically France sees a similar shift towards ownership of the worked land by the farmers to OTL and the rise of agrarian cooperatives, which is not as much an OTL development. The Spanish shift by comparison is a truly massive one which actually goes a long way towards starting to resolve some of the most significant problems facing Spanish agriculture - although the way they do so is probably not the most constructive in the long-term.

(38) IOTL Phages ended up part of the soviet arsenal and as such was widely disregarded in the west up until very recently, however the sheer potential of the technology is hard to grasp - but even in our time phage therapy has the potential to completely overturn modern medicine. Here Georgia remains the home of phage therapy, but it ends up getting drawn into the Zollverein's orbit rather than getting stuck in the Soviet Union. We still see at least a similar development of antibiotics, but phages are much more of an equal force in the struggle to deal with bacteria ITTL. Other than that many of these developments are at least somewhat similar to OTL, although there is a truly massive development occurring which allows Germany to stay at the top of global research and development - namely that many of their highly educated Jewish scientists stay in Germany to work rather than migrating to the UK or US under pressure from the Nazis. Honestly, the most I dig into this topic the more it boggles the mind the sheer scale of brain drain Germany experienced when the Nazis came to power.

(39) Eugenics is one of those fields where the theories were so far in front of the technological developments that they were never implemented with anything approaching what one might consider scientific rigor (regardless of whether you think it is a bogus science or not) so one of the things I want to explore somewhat is what happens if we don't have an absolute calamity like the Holocaust which makes the subject utterly taboo. There is something horrific but weirdly intriguing to wondering what Josef Mengele's career would have looked like in that sort of world as well - somewhere he is simply a leading mainstream scientific figure, instead of one of the icons of the horrors to which scientists can go in the name of science. The United States is a bit weird, since the Progressives are on the war-path against racist elements of society, but the American eugenics movement was deeply influenced by racist thoughts - so here we on one hand see the movement lose a bit of steam, and at the same time the emergence of an anti-racialist strain of eugenics which might pick up in Progressive circles. I was honestly a bit surprised that someone like W.E.B. Du Bois would be a proponent of eugenics, but it just goes to show how wide-ranging of a movement and field it was IOTL before the Nazis took hold of it. As for the Far East, it is quite clear that there is a very deep strand of bloodline supremacy thinking in many of these countries, even to the modern day, and Korean pure-bloodism has been a source of both political legitimacy and societal division in modern times. Here they end up having to deal with the Japanese, who share these beliefs - just of Japanese supremacy instead of Korean supremacy - with the result being a rather toxic mix.

(40) The idea of a major dam across the Yangtze is something literally every single Chinese leader tried to put into motion from Sun Yat-Sen onward, but the constant warfare, economic dislocation and later isolationism made it all but impossible to put into effect before the most recent Sino-thaw led to the Three Gorges Dam being built in 2009. ITTL the greater stability and economic buildup along the Yangtze see the dam prioritized quite highly. I have decided here to have Zuse's computer projects develop as a civilian initiative for the time being, with Siemens getting involved as financers and shareholders in Zuse's corporation. Without the impetus of the Second World War spurring on the analytical computing engine, I think Zuse and the George Stibitz at Bell Labs are probably the ones most engaged in the building of an early computer - and are the likely progenitors of computers ITTL.

(41) I have decided to butterfly the R101 and Hindenburg crashes of OTL, with crashes still occurring but being smaller and with a smaller death count, so that airships can continue to hold prevalence for a while yet - we don't see the sudden die-off of the industry as occurred IOTL, but are more likely to see a more long-term competition between airships and airplanes for dominance of the skies, with airplanes likely to win out in the long-term, but for now airships remain at their height and are seen as not just a lot more comfortable but also safer than airplanes. We see the spread of a more unified rail network across Eastern Europe/the Zollverein, which should have some interesting consequences at some point down the line. At the same time we see the automobile catch on more strongly in France, and car-culture more generally, with rail remaining king in Germany without the OTL Nazi highway programmes.

(42) The American military situation is actually quite an improvement from OTL, both the seating of a former general as president during 1920-1924 and the greater exposure to war by the American public ITTL making it more of a priority in the post-Great War period. Perhaps the most interesting thing to emerge from this is that the Christie tanks end up remaining in the United States - whereas IOTL they ended up in the Soviet Union and Great Britain where they eventually served as inspiration for the T-34 and Crusader tanks of WW2 fame. Thus, American tank development is significantly further along and there is a greater emphasis on the field ITTL. In Great Britain we see Fuller remain in the military and push it towards a more mobile policy of combined arms while the greater threat posed by Germany leaves the aerial strategists in Britain more focused on defense rather than offense.

(43) Spain was one of the very few places left in the world to have a very large number of independent gunsmiths, with each smith often adapting pre-existing models to fit exactly what the user wanted out of them. There was this whole artisanal gunsmith culture in Spain during this period largely due to a lack of regulations on what standards must be kept for specific arms, so ITTL the government sets out to impose some sort of control on their wildly complicated web of small gunsmiths which, while devastating the unique nature of the arms industry, does allow for the creation of a far more effective arms industry, with their small-arms rapidly proving amongst the highest quality - drawing in learnings from the many talented gunsmiths they have forced to work together with great results. As for helicopter development, IOTL Juan de la Cierva was also a pioneer but he ended up moving to the UK and leading the development there, whereas ITTL he stays in Spain and gets Franco-Spanish financial backing instead. IOTL he backed the nationalists and died in a horrific plane crash in 1936 - much of his technology ending up used by the Germans in their helicopter development. Nevertheless, of the Latin Pact nations it is undoubtedly France who are the military great power, with their designs spreading throughout the Pact. These developments have been mentioned in the past, but we go into it in a bit more detail this time around with a showing of how French tank and aviation technology is top-of-the-line given the greater government investment into it ITTL.

(44) So remember how the Americans kept the Christie tank for themselves? Well this is how the consequences play out in Russia as a result. The early tank development while leaning heavily into modifications of the Renault FT series, are predominantly light tanks with very limited impact on wider military affairs - and are a target of regular attacks by Trotsky when he is trying to anger the military members of the Central Committee. Instead it ends up being the ST-28, which we have already seen do stellar work in Georgia, which ends up being the paradigm-redefining tank for the Soviets ITTL. While lacking the superb suspension and speed of the Christie-based tanks, the Bohemian ST-28 is a very capable all-around medium tank, very well made for a relatively low price but without anything it excels at. However, once the Soviets get their hands on the design, it finds itself greatly transformed, with some of the key learnings which IOTL went into the T-34 now being used on this new model - as such we have the T-33 adopt the famous sloped armor, a massive increase in the machine's capabilities in rugged terrain and reliability while they gradually go about up-gunning, with the ST's chassis being increasingly adapted to new designs. Notably, this makes the T-33 one of the premier medium tanks in the world, but the Soviets have mediocre light tanks and their heavy tanks are an absolute mess.

(45) So without the disruptions and limitations imposed by the Versailles Treaty, we not only see a continuity of corporations (such as BFW remaining a force and Albatros surviving into the post-Great War era) while tank development continues uninterrupted. The result is that Germany ends up with pretty top-of-the-line military technological developments, not only investing more than anyone else, but also getting more out of its than almost anyone else. There should be more coming about German military developments in a later feature, but hopefully this will tide you guys over for now. Another thing to note is that the oil situation for Germany is vastly different from OTL, with massive consequences for the widespread adoption of civilian and military motorization - notably this has also resulted in less of an impetus to stockpile oil, with synthesizing efforts lagging significantly behind OTL efforts without the same degree of government backing.

(46) Germany was literally a mecca for physicists during these years, with an absolutely ridiculous number of Nobel laureates and top-tier physicists - it is honestly a bit disgusting how far ahead they were when you look into it in closer detail. The Nazis literally threw away most of the greatest minds in the world with their policies, including breaking up the Göttingen circle and driving nearly every prominent physicist in the country into exile. As I was working my way through some of the major figures I could draw in for the update it was literally something like 3/4 of the American and British scientists mentioned were German, Austrian or Hungarian in origin - I knew the brain drain was significant, but the sheer magnitude only really starts to break through when you are left trawling through wikipage after wikipage of prominent physicist and realize they would likely have been in Germany if not for the Nazis. ITTL, by contrast, Germany remains at the heart of physics and the study circles at Copenhagen, Göttingen and Münich continue unabated - I would also note that in contrast to OTL we don't see quite the same sort of brain drain from particularly China given the more peaceful circumstances in that country. I know that having Fermi be the first to really do largescale experiments in Italy is a bit weird, but I hope that my explanation is sufficient - this is something of a gamble in the hopes that nuclear energy will be able to greatly reduce Socialist Italy's reliance upon German coal. Now granted, them running out of money and then having to beg the Germans for support - sharing their findings in the process - is a bit of delicious irony, but I don't think that the Germans would be the first to pull the trigger on actual state financing for these sorts of projects on a large scale before some sort of proof-of-concept was available. One notable development here is that Szilard does not keep his findings on nuclear chain reactions secret ITTL and instead the Europe-wide open scientific dialogue which characterized the period prior to Nazi Germany's rise continues unabated with eager debates amongst the scientific community in scientific journals and letters is left alone. The AR-1 is based on the OTL Chicago Pile-1, but somewhat more successful and better built - notably the experiment is done in the countryside outside of Innsbruck instead of in the heart of Chicago as IOTL. What is important to note is that with strategic bombing not quite as prevalent of a doctrinal position as IOTL (including the lack of mass bombing campaigns as were shown to be possible in the Spanish Civil War) and without the war fever and fears of OTL, the impetus for viewing nuclear technology through a military prism first has sort of been sidelined, particularly given that very few of the physicists themselves are really interested in the military availability and are in large part pacifists - so ITTL civilian nuclear technology is very much in the front seat the first time around. I also want to stress that the reason the Germans are able to do it so much earlier and without the massive buildup of OTL's Manhattan Project is quite simply because Germany is far, far better positioned as long as there aren't massive trade blockades or a war going on for this technology to be developed.

Endnote:

Once again this is a very broad collection of topics getting covered in a single sweeping update, but I really do hope that people find some of these developments interesting. I know that I have gone a bit light on describing military developments, but this is hopefully a nice look in on how things are proceeding in some of the major nations on a superficial, technologically-focused level.

I am particularly looking forward to hearing people's thoughts on the development of nuclear technology, the continuation of airships as a major transportation form and the Three Gorges Dam in China.

I am not exactly the most versed person in technological history, particularly compared to a lot of the people on this forum, but I do hope I have done the topic justice. Do let me know if there is anything you feel I might have missed out on, or if you have any suggestions or ideas for how certain tech developments might have gone ITTL. I am realizing in hindsight that I ended up forgetting to deal with the development of rocketry technology, but I hope you will forgive the oversight.
 
The first half of the Twentieth Century was a period of immense new leaps forward in humanity's understanding of the world - in the fields of physics, mathematics and chemistry the fundamental understanding of how the world functioned and its base elements were in a state of constant flux and development, with new theories and understandings incredibly widespread. At the heart of it all lay Germany, a bastion of theoretical sciences and the vanguard of new technological developments. From Göttingen, Münich and Copenhagen, massive steps in particular the theory of physics occurred under the leadership and direction of Max Born, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, with students and theoreticians from the entire world flocking to the Zollverein to learn more.
I think this is key to one of the most underappreciated butterflies of any no Holocaust timeline. OTL, Central European Ashkenazi Jews (both in Germany and in Hungary, especially Budapest, hence the Martian scouts in Budapest joke) punched enormously above their weight scientifically in the 1880-1930 period. This is often rounded off to German dominance of science pre-Nazis, but it was more precisely German/Hungarian Ashkenazi Jew's dominance of science (with Germany being much bigger and more industrialized then Hungary). OTL, this was cut off* by the fact that vast majority of central European Ashkenazim were murdered in the Holocaust. TTL, that won't happen, and it seems likely that there will continue to be an enormous number of prominent Ashkenazi scientists, which probably means quicker scientific progress in general.

*Ashkenazi Jews continued to disproportionately contribute to science, but there weren't very many after the Holocaust.

Notably, this period would see widescale modernization and mechanization across vast swathes of Eastern Europe, in large part funded by what would grow into truly massive Danish agricultural cooperatives based around Diary, Beef, Pork, Chicken and Wheat-products, with the cooperatives eventually running every part of the supply chain across half of Europe - making them amongst the largest and most powerful agricultural corporations in the world.
I knew this TL was secretly a Danewank!
 
I think this is key to one of the most underappreciated butterflies of any no Holocaust timeline. OTL, Central European Ashkenazi Jews (both in Germany and in Hungary, especially Budapest, hence the Martian scouts in Budapest joke) punched enormously above their weight scientifically in the 1880-1930 period. This is often rounded off to German dominance of science pre-Nazis, but it was more precisely German/Hungarian Ashkenazi Jew's dominance of science (with Germany being much bigger and more industrialized then Hungary). OTL, this was cut off* by the fact that vast majority of central European Ashkenazim were murdered in the Holocaust. TTL, that won't happen, and it seems likely that there will continue to be an enormous number of prominent Ashkenazi scientists, which probably means quicker scientific progress in general.

*Ashkenazi Jews continued to disproportionately contribute to science, but there weren't very many after the Holocaust.


I knew this TL was secretly a Danewank!

I remember listening to a podcast or audiobook where the question was asked "How many Einsteins, Turings and Hawkings died during the First and Second World War, during the Holocaust and the Spanish Flu?" Made a real impact on my thinking. That said, you are completely correct in Ashkenazi Jews from Central Europe having a truly disproportionate role in modern scientific developments and their push into exile or murder during the Holocaust is something which has truly set back European scientific development by many, many years.

My TLs are always secretly Danewanks, have a rather soft spot for the Bengal as well :p I just try to keep the wanks relatively low-key, which is a lot easier to do with somewhere like Denmark which lacks the scale to really warp the timeline during wanks :D Certainly easier to do without it becoming overly problematic than if I were an American, German or Russian :p
 
I remember listening to a podcast or audiobook where the question was asked "How many Einsteins, Turings and Hawkings died during the First and Second World War, during the Holocaust and the Spanish Flu?" Made a real impact on my thinking. That said, you are completely correct in Ashkenazi Jews from Central Europe having a truly disproportionate role in modern scientific developments and their push into exile or murder during the Holocaust is something which has truly set back European scientific development by many, many years.

My TLs are always secretly Danewanks, have a rather soft spot for the Bengal as well :p I just try to keep the wanks relatively low-key, which is a lot easier to do with somewhere like Denmark which lacks the scale to really warp the timeline during wanks :D Certainly easier to do without it becoming overly problematic than if I were an American, German or Russian :p
It isn't a true Danewank unless there is a 20th century scene set in Stockholm, Denmark. :)
 
At the rate things are going, the first nuke might be developed before another major war breaks out. That would certainly be interesting; if there‘s another big conflict of some kind, you‘d have (early) nukes available from the very beginning, instead of arriving at the very end, like in WW2 IOTL.
 
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