No Islam means a greatly strengthened Constantinople. Which means the Papacy doesn't need to go hunting for a new protector. So yeah, whatever the Franks wind up with does not get termed the Holy Roman Empire.
A fourth century POD: Julian the Apostate gets thirty years on the throne, enough time for his Reformed Paganism to bed in, or at least to survive his death. The classical world winds up with a Cold War of Christianity vs Classical Paganism, with neither being able to make a knock-out blow. By...
James takes it as a sign of Divine Providence in favour of his authority, and gets to work with a purge. Everyone else knuckles under, and when James gets around to calling the new Parliament, it's wall-to-wall Tories.
Irish revolts were a fact of life (last in 1798).
This might well butterfly the 1832 Reform Act, since the opponents to Catholic Emancipation thought that Reform would enable them to rally Britain's Protestant majority against those pesky Catholics. And without 1832... 1848 just gets interesting.
The average person was just fine with Charles' Personal Rule (no Parliament = No taxes, and he kept the country out of the Thirty Years War). If you can stop Laud pushing the prayer book on Scotland, there's no reason he couldn't have kept the Personal Rule going indefinitely.
The formula for a Mondale win:
- A delayed economic recovery.
- A better running mate.
- A better campaign (no tax raising comment, less focus on identity politics, and more New Deal 2.0).
- Reagan screws up both the debates.
(Also recall that 1980 was close up until that fateful debate. I...
Tinkering around with Justinian here is rearranging the deck-chairs on the Titanic. The economics of Rome (the city, not the Empire) just didn't stack up, and hadn't done so for a long, long time. To restore Rome to a large city, you need to get the trade networks back up in the West, with the...