Τὸ κληρoνóμημα τοῦ Περικλέους : The heritage of Periklēs
N.B.: Write a sequel will take me more time than planned. I've already rewrited the peloponnesian war, so I decided to post it even if the chapter 2 risks to take time. Here, I've essentially hellenized the text and you will have explanations (for greek names, adjectives and words in italic type) after this chapter.
Τὸ κληρoνóμημα τοῦ Περικλέους
The heritage of Periklēs
The War of Peloponnēsos
Map of Hellas in 431 BC
In 431 BC, the arkhidaman war broke out between Athēnai and Spartē.
This year, the Lakedaimōnioi under Arkhēgetēs Arkhidamos II looted Attikē.
The following year, the Athēnaioi managed to take Potidaia which had betrayed them two years earlier.
However, Athēnai was ravaged by plague. Several tens of thousands peoples died.
In 429 BC, while this same plague was carrying off the great Periklēs, the allied polis of Plataia was besieged.
This siege ended in 427 BC. At the same time, the dēlian triēreis conquered the seas for Athēnai.
In 425 BC, the Athēnaioi scored a major victory by capturing 400 spartiatan hoplitai on the island of Sphaktēriē, near the messēnian port of Pulos which had just been taken from the Peloponnēsian Summakhia.
In 424 BC, after a failure at Megara, the Athēnaioi planned to inflict a fatal blow to the Summakhia of the Peloponnēsos.
Winter 424 BC : The fall of Boiōtia
In late autumn, Athēnai launched an invasion of Boiōtia.
Map of Boiōtia
Simultaneously , two stratoi invaded Boiōtia. The first stratos, commanded by Dēmosthenēs, attacked from sea while a pro-athēnaian democrat uprising was occuring in Siphai and Khaironeia . The second stratos, led by Hippokratēs, took Dēlion.
Having to dispatch troops to Thespiai against Dēmosthenēs, the boiōtarkhēs Pagōndas met Hippokratēs in a situation of numerical inferiority, with 10.000 men against 15.000 Athēnaioi. Pagōndas massed the thēbaian contingent in his right wing with an unsual depht of 25 men, hoping to break the athēnaian lines. Taking the initiative, he ordered the attack while Hippokratēs was still giving a speech to his men. The battle began favourably for Pagōndas as his phalanx managed to push back the athēnaian left wing, but shortly after, his own left wing was close to be destroyed by the Athēnaioi. He sent his hippikon to support it but this counter-attack is soon smashed by the athēnaian hippikon. Little after, Hippokratēs launched the final strike, and outflanked the Thēbaioi. Pagōndas died during the fights. After battle, 2.000 Boiōtoi and 1.000 Athēnaioi were lying in the battlefield. At the nightfall, the Boiōtoi asked the right to take their deads. The battle of Dēlion was a total victory for Athēnai.
While the battle of Dēlion was occuring, Dēmosthenēs defeated an other boiōtan army under the command of the boiōtarkhēs Arianthides which attempted to retake Siphai. Having to confront both Dēmosthenēs and democrats in western Boiōtia, he decided to entrench himself with his troops at Thespiai, blocking off the way to Thēbai.
A week after the battle of Dēlion, to 'help' the Thēbaioi to overthrown their governants, Hippokratēs besieged Tanagra. Desperated, the Thēbaioi sent messengers to the spartiatan general Brasidas, at this time in Thrakē, but they were intercepted by democrats.
Two weeks later, both Thespiai and Tanagra fell to the Athēnaioi and their allies.
After the taking of Thespiai and Tanagra, the panic spread across the polis of Thēbai. As a result, a revolution broke out. Waiting for a such event, Hippokratēs walked to Thēbai as soon as he heared this, and found its gates opened. Unable to crush the popular revolt now supported by the full force of an athēnaian army, the Boiōtarkhai surrendered.
Now with the entire Boiōtia under their control and supported by Athēnai, the pro-athēnaian Boiōtoi established democraties. Plataia recovered its independance.
A month later, the boiōtan poleis made their official entry in the Summakhia of Dēlos.
Winter 424 BC to summer 423 BC : The end of Brasidas
When the new of the invasion of Boiōtia a reached Spartē and Brasidas, it was too late. The fall of Thēbai and the rallying of Phōkis to Athēnai greatly shocked the Summakhia of Peloponnēsos.
In Thrakē, the spartiatan general Brasidas seeing his link with the Peloponnēsos cut and his stratos trapped there, decided to make a risky move: take Amphipolis, a vital town for Athēnai and his shipbuilding.
Map of north-eastern Hellas
Thinking that noone would anticipate his attack with a such weather, a stormy weather with even snow, he wanted to take the town by surprise. Arrived at Argilos, he took the town without a great resistance as its inhabitants, revolted against Athēnai rule, opened him their gates.
In Amphipolis, the party opposed to the argileian traitors, supported by the athēnaian general Eukles, managed to avoid that the gates be also opened to Brasidas. Immediately, Eukles sent a messenger to the stratēgos Thoukudidēs, who was at the island of Thasos, half a day's sail from Amphipolis, to tell him to come to their relief, what Thoukudidēs did at the reception of the message, by reuniting his forces.
So, Brasidas attempted to take the town before Thoukudidēs' arrival. He offered moderated terms, but convinced by general Eukles to stay in the side of the power which just conquered Boiōtia and inflicted a serious blow to the peloponnēsian Summakhia, the Amphipoleioi refused . After this refusal, Brasidas decided to launch a frontal assault against Amphipolis' walls, but after heavy fightings and serious losses, he was repulsed.
Just after, Thoukudidēs arrived and after having securised Eiōn, he made his way to Amphipolis, while Brasidas, fearing to be trapped between the besieged and the relief force, retreated to west.
Unable to pursue the Spartiatai without more means, and with a so bad weather, Thoukudidēs stayed in Amphipolis where he was hailed as a hero.
When the spring arrived, the Athēnaioi decided to grant to Thoukudidēs the reinforcements that he was asking to eliminate the threat of Brasidas' stratos over the cities allied to Athēnai in Thrakē.
In Thrakē, after his failure before Amphipolis, Brasidas launched several raids into Khalkidikē.
When spring began, Thoukudidēs and his 4.000 men were ready to fight. Within three months, they managed to push out of Khalkidikē the Spartiatai, no without some difficulties.
But two weeks after, Brasidas was ambushed by the Makedones. In fact, during the fights in Khalkidikē, the king Perdikkas II of Makedonia had sent a kērukes to make peace with Athēnai, and as the Athēnaioi asked him to give some proof of the sincerity of his reconciliation , he attacked Brasidas. An other treason. The Spartiatai inflicted serious losses to the Makedones but were finally crushed. Brasidas himself died in fighting. Only about 400 of the 1.600 Spartiatai escaped to the Makedones, to go to Lunkēstis where a king named Arrhabaios was rebelled against the rule of Perdikkas.
After the ambush, Perdikkas II sent the head of Brasidas to Thoukudidēs, but horrified of a such horror, the stratēgos asked to the makedonan king to also give him the body, to offer a worthy burrial for a dreaded but respected ennemy.
Spring to summer 423 BC : End of the arkhidaman war
Map of the isthmus of Korinthos
At the same time, in Megara, the stratēgos Hippokratēs came back, to end a work begun a year earlier, this time with a larger and better prepared stratos. From the long walls which had been occupied since the previous year, the Athēnaioi in first attacked the megarean port of Nisaia. After two days of fierce fights, the town was taken.
While Hippokratēs was preparing his forces for the next assault, against Megara, a stratos led by Arkhēgetēs Agís II went through Peloponnēsos to rescue the besieged city, but when he arrived next to his destination, it was too late: Megara had surrendered a day earlier. Agis II retreated to Korinthos.
After the fall of Megara, Spartē sent a delegation to the Athēnaioi to negociate peace, but this attempt supported by Nikias was repulsed by the warmongers under the leadership of Kleōn, people who wanted to humiliate Spartē by launching an invasion of Peloponnēsos.
At the summer beginning, Kleōn who had reunited about 9.000 hoplitai, a thousand of hippeis and a few hundreds of peltastai, crossed the isthmus of Korinthos and reached Korinthos itself where Agis II awaited him with 12.000 men.
It was planned that an army led by Dēmosthenēs would join Kleōn's stratos outside Korinthos after having landed near Sikuōn, just a few days before Kleōn's entry in Peloponnēsos. However Dēmosthenēs, quickly defeated after his landing, was unable to join Kleōn in the times.
The battle of Korinthos began when Kleōn launched a concerted attack of hippeis and hoplitai in order to outflank the peloponnēsian left wing, but the resistance of the korinthian contingent and a spartiatan counter-attack put an end to this attempt. A little later, the Spartiatai launched their own attack against the athēnaian left wing. The charge was so violent that the Athēnaioi began to move back. Then, while he was leading a counter-attack, Kleōn was struck by an arrow and fell from his horse. Grievously wounded, he couldn't avoid the defeat. A few hour after, he died.
Even if he had won a great victory, Agis II decided to not pursue the retreating Athēnaioi as his army is seriously weakened by the fights. In the battlefield, 2.500 Athēnaioi and 1.400 Peloponnēsioi were lying. At the nightfall, as usual, an Athēnaioi delegation asked the right to take their deads.
Following this failed invasion and the death of Kleōn, the pro-peace party took the upper hand, and Athēnai decided to accept a peace.
The negociations between the athēnaian stratēgos Nikias and the spartiatan arkhēgetēs Pleistoanax soon began.
Spartē and the peloponnēsian Summakhia recognized the entry of boiōtan poleis and Megara into the Summakhia of Dēlos, and Athēnai released the prisonners taken at Sphaktēriē.
Too, the access to temples throughout Hellas was freed and the oracle at Delphoi regained its autonomy.
The Eirēnē of Pleistoanax put an end to the arkhidaman war.
423 BC to 417 BC : The Summakhia of Korinthos: rise and fall
While after the Eirēnē , a young man named Alkibiadēs rouse at the head of the pro-war party, in Peloponnēsos, the tension began to rise between Spartē and its allies which critized more and more the lakedaimōnian hegemony.
Map of Peloponnēsos
This tension grew and grew, and finally, the crisis broke out in 420BC when the cities of Triphūlia revolted against Ēlis. Ēlis, fearing the bias of Spartē in case of arbitration, prefered to supress the revolt by its own means, but Spartē decided to support the Triphūlioi and sent a small contingent to protect them of the eleian 'aggressors'.
The crisis took an other turning point during the Olūmpia. The Lakedaimōnioi were excluded from the temple by the Ēleioi, and thus prevented from sacrificing or contending, for having refused to pay the fine specified in the olūmpian law imposed upon them by the Ēleioi who alleged that Spartē had violated the olūmpian ekekheiria . At the same time, the poleis of Korinthos and Mantineia took the party of Ēlis.
Spartē was humiliated.
The revenge of Spartē occured the following year when a lakedaimōnian stratos under Pleistoanax marched into a territory of Mantineia where inhabitants, the Parrasioi, asked Spartē to help them to gain independance. The fort of Kupselos, built by Mantineia to annoy the lakōnikan frontier was destroyed, and the Parrasioi won their independance.
Thereafter, Mantineia reacted by forming with Korinthos and Ēlis, then Argos, an anti-spartiatan alliance.
The new Summakhia of Korinthos was then approached by the Athēnaios Alkibiadēs, elected stratēgos in 420 BC, but its members preferred to maintain a strictly defensive alliance.
In 419 BC, maybe pushed by Alkibiadēs, the city of Argos decided to go at war with Epidauros upon the pretext that the Epidaurioi didn't sent an offering for their pasture-land to Apollōn Pūthios, as they were bound to do, the Argeioi having the chief management of the temple.
At summer beginning, while the Argeioi were invading Epidauros, the Lakedaimōnioi gathered an army to rescue the city and tried twice to attack Argos, but because of unfavourable sacrifices, they renounced.
During winter, Spartē sent by sea to Epidauros a contingent of three hundred Spartiatai under Agesippidas to help at the defense of the city, while the Argeioi, still unable to take the town, were ravaging the countryside.
At spring begining, a new lakedaimōnian stratos under Agis II of Spartē marched upon Argos, the sacrifices being propitious. With Argos under siege, the last reluctances of the Summakhia of Korinthos disappeared as it wasn't more matter of helping Argeioi to attack a city, but to defend a member of the Summakhia. When the relief force arrived two weeks later, rather than to be trapped between this force and the besegied, Agis II withdrew from Argolis.
Little after, the Summakhia's stratos attacked the city of Orkhomenos where hostages from Arkadia had been lodged there by the Lakedaimōnioi. The Orkhomeneioi, knowing the weakness of their walls, surrendered immediatly, then were forced to release the hostages and join the Summakhia of Korinthos.
After the taking of Orkhomenos, the Summakhia was divided upon the next target: the Mantineis wanted take Tegea while the Ēleioi wanted attack Lepreon. As Korinthos and Argos decided to follow the advice of Mantineia, the Ēleioi furious, decided to attack Lepreon, even alone.
Tegea was a key town in Peloponnēsos, and its fall would have prevented Spartiatai to move out of Lakōnikē. So, the Spartiatai reacted quickly when the pro-spartiatan party of Tegea called them to prevent a coup of the pro- korinthian faction. As soon as this town was secure, the arkhēgetēs Agis II marched upon Mantineia.
Summakhia's forces were settled on a hill near the town. Knowing that the Ēleioi would soon go back on their decision, Arkhēgetēs Agis ordered an attack but, convinced in extremis by his lieutenants of the danger of a such move, he recalled it. So, to obligate the Summakhia's forces to fight him in a more favourable ground, he diverted a river to flood Mantineia. This was a success.
Near to Mantineia, Agis II put in order of battle his 3.500 Spartiatai, 2.000 heilōtes , 3.000 Tegeatai allied and more than 600 skiritai, the elite of Spartē. Against them, there were 3.000 Argeioi, 2.000 Mantineis, 2.000 Korinthioi, a thousand of arkadan mercenaries and another thousand of hoplitai from allied contingents.
While the battle began, Arkhēgetēs Agis, fearing that his left wing can be outflanked, sent the skiritai to lenghten his lines. To cover the void created, he ordered the companies of Hipponoidas and Aristokles to leave their positions in the center and cover the line. This however was not achieved, for the two captains were unable, or unwilling to complete these manoeuvres on such short notice. Little after, the Mantineis and the right part of the Argeioi, the elite Argeian Thousand entered the gap and routed the skiritai, but as they pursued the routed men instead attack the lakedaimōnian center from the side, they permitted to Arkhēgetēs Agis to rout the Summakhia center then to outflank its right flank, mainly consisting of Korinthioí. When the Korinthioi began to retreat, he returned his forces against the former Summakhia's right flank which after having pursuing the skiritai became itself surrounded.
The victory was total for Spartē.
At the winter beginning, the Lakedaimōnioi sent an embassy to the demoralized Argeioi. Under pressure from the pro-spartiatan oligarchic party, they accepted the terms of Spartē: Argos had to leave the Summakhia of Korinthos and make alliance with Spartē.
Soon after, the democratic regime of Argos was overthrown.
The defection of Argos meant the beginning of the end for the Summakhia of Korinthos. After Argos, Mantineia whose the situation was become untenable, surrendered. Thereafter, Korinthos and Ēlis made peace with Spartē.
The Summakhia of Korinthos was no longer.
417 BC to 416 BC : The Argeian revolution or the renewal of the war
In summer, while the Gumnopaidiai occured at Spartē, the democrat party of Argos staged a coup against the oligarchs.
The Lakedaimōnioi prepared to rescue their ally, but hearing the defeat of the oligarchs in Argos, they renounced. Fearing the Lakedaimōnioi, the Argeioi called Athēnai for help.
In Athēnai, since 423 BC and the Eirēnē of Pleistoanax, the warmongers under Alkibiadēs had worked to regain their lost influence, searching to renew war with Spartē and eliminate this thorn in the athēnaian hegemony over Hellas. So, attempts were made to approach the Summakhia of Korinthos and make alliance against Spartē, but they were repulsed because of the opposition of Korinthos.
When a new opportunity appeared with the democratic revolution of Argos, the warmongers took over, and under their pressure, Athēnai sent a contingent of 2.000 hoplitai to defend the new ally against an eventual invasion, what occured at the winter beginning.
Indeed, learning this intrusion of Athēnai in Peloponnēsos, Spartē, still emboldened by its great victory of Mantineia, decided to attack Argos.
Even when they learnt that Argos had accepted to join the Summakhia of Dēlos, they didn't stopped their advance upon the town.
So, when an Lakedaimōnioi army of 9.000 men entered into Argolis, Athēnai declared war.
Epidauros, Ēlis and Mantineia joined Spartē, but Ēlis and Mantineia did this, as they were directly threatened and without possibility to be helped immediatly by Athēnai; as a result of this forced alliance, their loyalty to Spartē won't be never sure. Korinthos decided to stay neutral.
The first attacks of Arkhēgetēs Agís upon Argos walls failed.
As the Athēnaioi had landed in the same time an army to take Epidauros, Arkhēgetēs Agis retreated from Argolis to relief Epidauros. In Epidauros, thanks to the presence of the spartiatan contingent who had remained in the town since the argeian invasion of 419 BC, the Athēnaian assault was repulsed, although with heavy losses. As Arkhēgetēs Agis II arrived with a relief force, the Athēnaioi had to leave Epidauros.
For the remainder of 416 BC, the situation in Peloponnēsos remained a stalemate, with occasional raids by Athēnaioi in Epidauros and by Lakedaimōnioi in Argolis.
However, in the Aigaiōn, it was different.
During the arkhidamian war, the island of Mēlos, a lakedaimōnian apoikia, had remained neutral. With the renewing of the war, the Athēnaioi decided to attack the island which had refused to join the Summakhia of Dēlos. One year of siege was necessary to take the island. After the fall, every men were put to death while the women and the children were enslaved.
416 BC to 414 BC : The expedition of Sikelia
In Sikelia, a war broke out between Egesta and Selinous. Allied to Surakousai, the second pressured its rival by both sea and land. So, remembering their former alliance with Athēnai, Egesta sent an embassy to find help.
Map of Sikelia
In Athēnai, this war was seen as an occasion to cut the grain shipments of Spartē.
A debate so took place before a popular assembly between adversaries and proponents of the intervention, between Nikias and Alkibiadēs. Alkibiadēs managed to convince the assembly and an expedition was approved.
Three stratēgoi were chosen to lead the expedition and were accorded exceptional powers to make certain diplomatic and military decisions without prior consultation with an athēnaian assembly because of the great distances between Sikelia and Athēnai, although they were remaining accountable for their conduct upon their return. These three stratēgoi autokratores were: Alkibiadēs of course, Lamakhos for his military experience, and Lakhēs for his knowledge of Sikelia.
At mid-summer 415 BC, while the expedition prepared to leave Athēnai, a scandal erupted.
Indeed, the hermai, stone markers representing Hermēs, were mutilated. Soon, the fear of an oligarchic plot appeared. Alkibiadēs was accused by his ennemies to be responsible. Alkibiadēs offered to organize a trial in order to prove his innocence. However, Alkibiadēs was extremely popular and had the support of the army. His opponents decided to abandon the trial, at least until that he leave Athēnai with the main source of his support, after what it would be possible to overwhelm his partisans and judge him in absentia. But, just at the moment of the departure, a storm appeared. Learning the plan of his ennemies, Alkibiadēs decided to obligate the organization of a trial. As expected by his opponents, he was acquitted.
A week later, the fleet sailed to Korkura where it made junction with allies. 6.000 hoplitai from Athēnai, Boiōtia and Argolis, a few hundreds of tozeutai from Krētē, a few tens of hippeis and 150 vessels from Athēnai, Khios and Lesbos, were gathered. Some ships were sent to seek in Megalē Hellas and Sikelia another allies.
In Surakousai, Hermokratēs warned the city of the imminent athēnaian attack, but Athēnagoras, his main opponent, said that there was no athēnaian attack, accusing the surakousian stratēgos to instill fear among the population and try to overthrow the governement.
When the Athēnaioi sailed to Megalē Hellas, the poleis refused to ally and refused them inside their walls.
At this moment, Alkibiadēs and Lamakhos had proposed two different strategies: Lamakhos wanted surprize the Surakousioi by landing directly near the city while Alkibiadēs wanted to seek sikeliotan allies before attack. This strategy was adopted as Lakhēs choose it.
But also in Sikelia, the poleis refused to help the Athēnaioi, and the Athēnaioi soon learnt that the Egestaioi had only 30 talents to pay the Athēnaioi, far from the promised funds for the expedition. The only ally that the Athēnaioi found was Katanē where the local surakousian party had been defeated.
Having found a base, Alkibiadēs began the preparations to attack Surakousai. Knowing that the surakousian hippikon was far superior to his own hippikon, he imagined a stratagem. He sent a man devoted to the Athēnaioi at Surakousai where this man, saying to be sent by the surakousian party of Katanē, told them that the city was ready to rise up against the Athēnaioi and to open its gates to the Surakousioi. Taking this 'opportunity', Hermokratēs sent, as expected by Surakousioi, the main part of his hippikon to attack the Athēnaioi at Katanē. But when they arrived before the town, they found the gates closed and the Athēnaioi already gone. Indeed, Alkibiadēs had left Katanē and landed near Surakousai, taking everyone by surprise. He ordered soon to occupy the Olympieion, a temple near Surakousai, to push the Surakousioi into a battle before the return of their hippikon from Katanē.
The Surakousioi put their men in order of battle as the Athēnaioi. The Surakousioi disposed their men with a depht of 16 men, but Alkibiadēs, having fought eight years earlier at Dēlion where the Thēbaioi had used a similar tactic knew how react. With his right wing, mainly consisting of Argeioi and Boiōtoi, he outflanked and routed the surakousian stratos, mainly consisting of the mass levy of inexperienced politai. The surakousian center, pressured by both athēnaian center and right wing, was destroyed, while the surakousian left wing fled. When the surakousian hippeis arrived the following day, they could only see the extent of the disaster.
Alkibiadēs soon began the siege of Surakousai.
When the new of this great athēnaian victory reached the other sikeliotan poleis, several of them rallied Athēnai: Messēnē, Rhēgion, Kamarina, Akragas. The Sikeloi rallied them too.
Surakousai sent embassies to Spartē and Karkhēdōn to seek help, but none of them responded.
The winter just began.
The Surakousioi attempted to built counter-walls to prevent the Athēnaioi to completly isolate the town from Sikelia but they failed twice. And by mid-winter, the athēnaian circumvallation lines were completed. At the same time occured an other attempt to break the siege from the exterior. From Gela, an army was intended to march against the besiegers and, with the help of a fleet , force them to abandon the siege. However, this army was intercepted near Akrai by a contingent of sikeliotan allies of Athēnai under Lamakhos, and the fleet was defeated near the promontory of Pakhunos.
It wasn't the only action undertook outside of Surakousai during this winter.: the stratēgos Lakhēs had been sent to help Egesta against Selinous.
When the spring began, reinforcements from Hellas arrived to the Athēnaioi: a few hundreds of hippeis and tozeutai, 4.000 hoplitai and supplementary funds to pay the sikeliotan allies.
At the end of the spring, a naval battle occured near the Aigadōn where the surakousian fleet was again defeated, and destroyed. Soon after, Selinous surrendered.
At Surakousai, after a hard winter for both sides, the reinforcements came from Hellas enabled Alkibiadēs to reinforce the pressure upon the Surakousioi. Surakousai managed to hold until the end of summer, but because of the pressure of a starved population and of a beginning of plague, the surakousian commanders surrendered.
Surakousai was forced to restitute Leontinoi to its inhabitants, at this time exiled, and of course, to respect an embargo on grain shipments for the Summakhia of Peloponnēsos. Thereafter, its walls were razed and an athēnaian garrison was installed.
Seeing the defeat of Surakousai, its former sikeliotan allies made peace with Athēnai.
415 BC to summer 414 BC, in Hellas : The beginning of the end
As in 416 BC, the year 415 BC was a stalemate. In Athēnai, to end this situation, an expedition in Messēnia was planned. The expedition was intended to free the Heilōtes from Spartē and open an other front.
Map of Messēnia
Nikias was chosen to lead the expedition, to claim some glory for his party, while Alkibiadēs was besieging Surakousai.
A fleet departed from the Peiraieus at mid-spring 414 BC. The stratos under Nikias landed near Pulos. The first action of the campaign was the battle of the Selas river where Nikias took by surprise a spartiatan detachment which was watching the athēnaian garrison of Pulos.
When Arkhēgetēs Agis, at this time in Argolis, learnt the invasion, he faced to a dilemme as Nikias was threatening Lakōnikē. Taking his stratos, he made his way towards Messēnia, abandoning Epidauros that the athēnaian stratēgos Hippokratēs soon besieged.
When he arrived, Nikias had taken Korōnē and the Heilōtes were rising up.
Learning that the Ēleioi, after having betrayed Spartē, had sent 2.000 hoplitai to help the Athēnaioi, Arkhēgetēs Agis decided to precipitate the battle with Nikias.
Thouria was the battlefield chosen. Nikias had under his command around 6.000 hoplitai, 500 peltastai, 300 hippeis, a hundred of tozeutai, and received the help of 1.500 messēnian heilōtes. Arkhēgetēs Agis, him, had only 7.000 men, whose a good part of arkadan allies and lakōnikan heilōtes.
The battle no lasted a long time. The first assaults by the athēnaian hoplitai routed the Lakedaimōnioi. It could also be said that the defection of lakōnikan heilōtes and Mantineis was one of the main reasons of the athēnaian victory of this day.
However, Nikias didn't pursue the retreating Lakedaimōnioi.
Instead, he stayed in Messēnia where he secured his hold. Near the Ithōmē, he rebuilt the former polis of Messēnē and invited messēnian exiles from all Hellas to return and rebuild their homeland.
It was in summer.
414 BC to 413 BC : The fall of Spartē
With the fall of Epidauros in mid-autumn, Spartē found itself without allies, even if later, rumours saying that the Lakedaimōnioi had sought help from Persis have spreaded. The true was that, with or without Persis, it was already too late.
After having brought Sikelia in the athēnaian side, Alkibiadēs came back to Athēnai.
An assembly decreed shortly after the gathering of an army, one of the greater ever gathered in the hellēnic history. Around 21.000 men were reunited: 17.000 hoplites from Athēnai and its allies, the Summakhia of Dēlos, Argos and Sikelia, 2.000 peltastai, 1.500 hippeis, and 500 tozeutai. The Lakedaimōnioi, even after a general mobilization were able to align only 9.000 men. Around 3.000 men were also sent to reinforce Nikias in Messēnia.
Desparate, the Spartiatai sent an embassy under Pleistoanax to ask peace, under the mediation of Korinthos. But the negociations were broken as soon as the Athēnaioi gave their terms: Spartē had to recognize the hegemony of Athēnai over Hellas and join an hellēnic Summakhia. Even the Korinthioi were shocked.
The confrontation was inevitable.
In the beginning of spring 413 BC, the two stratoi encountered near Mantineia, a good omen were thinking the Spartiatai. The Lakedaimōnioi were led by Arkhēgetēs Agis II, and the Athēnaioi were led by the stratēgos Alkibiadēs.
The Spartiatai proved to be equal to their ancestors, but it was an unequal fight. After hours of heavy fightings, the lakedaimōnian stratos was outflanked and routed. At the nightfall, 4.000 Spartiatai and 7.000 Athēnaioi, Boiōtoi and other allies, were lying in the battlefield; Arkhēgetēs Agis II was among them.
Two weeks after, Alkibiadēs made junction with Nikias near Spartē itself.
Seeing that everything was lost, the city didn't offer resistance. When the Athēnaioi arrived before the walls of the city, it surrendered.
Athēnai had won the war; after near half a century of battles: Athēnai was become the ruler of Hellas.
: A first POD. In OTL, Demosthenes arrives earlier.
: A second POD. In this TL, the treason of Nicomachus never occured.
: IOTL, they surrendered just a day before Thucydides arrival.
: IOTL, Perdiccas has changed side several times.
: Laches was, in OTL, the commander of a previous expedition in Sicily. In this TL, he didn't die at Mantinea, as the Athenians haven't participated to the battle.
: Effect butterfly
: In OTL, there was a plot to turn the town into an athenian ally, but it was revealed by Alcibiades.
: The fleet sent previously by the Syracusans to help Selinus against Segesta.
This chapter is essentially based upon the 'History of the Peloponnesian war' of Thucydides
In this v2.0, I've hellenized the terms of the previous version, with latin alphabet.
I used the greek names of cities, regions and characters. For the citizenship (nationalities) and other terms about ranks, offices and military or political structures, I've used the Nominative case.
For the adjectives, I used the root of the nationalities.
So, for you, the glossary of the terms, names and hellenized adjectives used in this chapter:
Ranks and offices
arkhēgetēs (sg): the title of the kings of Sparta
boiōtarkhēs (sg) / boiōtarkhai (pl): the title of a boeotian commander, an office similar to the athenian strategos, excepted the supplementary powers given by the theban oligarchy
kērukes (sg): the greek term for herald
stratēgos (sg)/ stratēgoi (pl): the officials holding the military powers
stratēgoi autokratores (pl): this office is similar to that of strategos plus exceptionnal powers given in the cases where the strategos is too far to respond before an assembly, as in Sicily; later, it will be used as an equivalent of the roman dictator.
Type of soldier
heilōtes (pl) > helots (when it's written with an H, you must understand it as a sociopolitical group)
hippeis (pl) > horsemen
hoplites (sg) / hoplitai (pl) > hoplite
peltastai (pl) > peltasts
skiritai (pl) > the elite soldiers of Sparta
tozeutai (pl) > archers
hippikon (sg) > cavalry
phalanx (sg) > the phalanx formation
stratos (sg) / stratoi (pl) > an army (I've used this term for the sense of 'group of soldiers', but when 'army' is written in english, you must understand it as a sociopolitical group)
apoikia (sg) > the greek colony
polis (sg) / poleis (pl) > city (to the political sense of city-state)
politai (pl) > the citizens
summakhia (pl) > military alliance, league
Events and political concepts
Eirēnē(sg) > Peace (to understand here as 'peace treaty')
ekekheiria (sg) > olympic truce
Gumnopaidiai (pl) > gymnopaedia (a yearly spartan festival of war dancing)
Olūmpia [the] > the ancient olympic games; the corresponding adjective is 'olūmpian'
Locations, citizenship and adjectives
> the Aegadian islands
> the Aegean sea
> modern Agrigento, in southern Sicily
> today, the town of Palazzolo Acreide in southern Sicily
> an athenian colony in Thrace: its inhabitants are the 'Amphipoleioi'
> a town near Amphipolis: the corresponding adjective is 'argileian'
> the territory of Argos
> a city-state in north-eastern Peloponnese: its inhabitants are the 'Argeioi'; the corresponding adjective is 'argeian' (argive)
> Arcadia, a territory corresponding to central Peloponnese: one of the peoples inhabiting it are the 'Parrasioi' (the Parrhasians [History of the Peloponnesian war, V-33]); the corresponding adjective is 'arkadan'
> the city-state of Athens: its inhabitants are the 'Athēnaioi' (sg: an 'Athēnaios' ); the corresponding adjective is 'athēnaian'
> the territory of Athens
> Boeotia: its inhabitants are the 'Boiōtoi': the corresponding adjective is 'boiōtan'
> Delium, in Boeotia
> island of the Cyclades: the corresponding adjective is 'dēlian'
> a town of Phocis
> a city-state of western Sicily: its inhabitants are the 'Egestaioi'
> a port near Amphipolis
> the city-state of Elis, and its territory: its inhabitants are the 'Ēleioi'; the corresponding adjectiive is 'eleian'
> a city-state of Pelopnnese and its terrority: its inhabitants are the 'Epidaurioi'
> a city-state in southern Sicily
> the Mount Ithome
> Chalcidice, a region in northern Aegean sea
> Camarina, a city-state of southern Sicily
> a city state in eastern Sicily, just north to Syracuse
> Chaeronea, a city-state of western Boeotia
> island of Chios, in eastern Aegean sea
> the city-state of Corinth in north-eastern Peloponnese: its inhabitants are the 'Korinthioi'; the corresponding adjective is 'korinthian'
> the island of Corcyra in the eastern Ionian sea
> town of southern Messenia
> the island of Crete
> a fort built in mantinean territory (History of the Peloponnesian war, V-33)
> Laconia, the territory of Sparta in south-eastern Peloponnese: the corresponding adjective is 'lakōnikan'
> a city-state of eastern Sicily
> the city of Lepreum, in elean territory
> an island of eastern Aegean sea
> a region in north-west of ancient Macedonia
> Macedonia, the region corresponding to the greek Macedonia of today: its inhabitants are the 'Makedones'; the corresponding adjective is 'makedonan'
> a city-state of central Peloponnese, in Arcadia: its inhabitants are the Mantineis
> Magna Graecia or Great Greece
> a city-state and its territory, just south-east to Athens: the corresponding adjective is 'megarean'
> an island of south-western Cyclades
> a town of Messenia
> today, Messina, in northeastern Sicily
> a region corresponding to south-western Peloponnese: the corresponding adjective is 'messēnian'
> the port of Megara
> a temple near Syracuse
> Orchomenus, a city of Arcadia: its inhabitants are the 'Orkhomeneioi'
> today, the Cap Passero in southern Sicily
> Piraeus, port of Athens
> Peloponnese: its inhabitants are the 'Peloponnēsioi'; the corresponding adjective is'peloponnēsian'
> Phocis, a region bounded on the south by corinthian Gulf and on east by Boeotia
> Plataea, a city-state of south-eastern Boeotia, near the athenian border
> Potidaea, a city-state of Chalcidice
> the port of Pylos, in western Messenia
> today, Reggio di Calabria, in southern Italia
> a river of Messenia (it seems that the river is dried up today; I've used the name given by map)
> the city-state of Selinunte in western Sicily
> the island of Sicily: one of the peoples inhabiting it are the 'Sikeloi' (the Sicels); the corresponding adjetcive is 'sikeliotan'
> the city of Sicyon in southeastern corinthian gulf
> a city of south-western Boeotia, on the shores of the corinthian gulf
> Sparta: its inhabitants are the 'Spartiatai' or the 'Lakedaimōnioi'; the corresponding adjectives are 'spartiatan' and 'lakedaimōnian'
> the island of Sphacteria, south to Pylos
> Syracuse: its inhabitants are the 'Surakousioi'; the corresponding adjective is 'surakousian'
> a city in eastern Boeotia
> a town in southern Arcadia: its inhabitants are the 'Tegeatai'
> an island of the northern Aegean sea
> a city of south-western Boeotia
> the city state of Thebes in central Boeotia: its inhabitants are the 'Thēbaioi'; the corresponding adjective is 'thēbaian'
> A town in Messenia
> a region included in the territory of Elis: its inhabitants are the 'Triphūleioi'
Agis II > King of Sparta
Alkibiadēs > Alcibiades, strategos of Athens
Apollōn Pūthios > the greek deity 'Apollo Pythius'
Arianthides > a boeotarch of Thebes (History of the Peloponnesian war, IV-91)
Aristokles > a polemarch present at Mantinea IOTL as ITTL (History of the Peloponnesian war, V-71)
Arkhidamos II > Archidamus II, a spartan king and Agis II's father; the corresponding adjective is 'arkhidaman '
Arrhabaios > a macedonian king of Lyncestis, rebelled against Perdiccas II (History of the Peloponnesian war,IV-83)
Athēnagoras > Athenagoras, a syracusan politician opposed to Hermocrates
Brasidas > a spartan general
Dēmosthenēs > Demosthenes, an athenian strategos
Eukles > an athenian general (History of the Peloponnesian war, IV-103)
Hermēs > Hermes, a greek deity
Hermokratēs > Hermocrates, a syracusan strategos
Hippokratēs > an athenian strategos
Hipponoidas > a polemarch present at Mantinea IOTL as ITTL (History of the Peloponnesian war, V-71)
Lakhēs > Laches, an athenian strategos
Lamakhos > Lamachus, an athenian strategos
Nikias > Nicias, an athenian strategos
Pagōndas > Pagondas, a boeotarch (History of the Peloponnesian war, IV-91)
Perdikkas II > king of Macedonia
Periklēs > Pericles, an athenian strategos
Pleistoanax > Pleistoanax, a king of Sparta
Thoukudidēs > Thucydides, an athenian strategos
Last edited by galileo-034; August 24th, 2011 at 03:43 PM..
The chapter 2 will be shorter and will be about the Interbellum between the Peloponnesian war and the War with Persia.
You will see the formation of the hellenic league, a tour in the neutral greek states and the intervention of Athens in favour of Amyrtaeus in Egypt and of Evagoras in Cyprus, interventions which will lead to the war.
Good timing with this, I've been getting interested in Greek history over the past week or so.
Redux of the Winner of the 2011 Turtledove Award for Best Continuing Ancient TL:
The Count of Years -How the Maya survive the Collapse and Conquest
Well I like it, prefer the more authentic names anyway. Sound way more manly than the familiar versions.
Redux of the Winner of the 2011 Turtledove Award for Best Continuing Ancient TL:
The Count of Years -How the Maya survive the Collapse and Conquest
If too many of you don't understand, I could reduce the hellenization to the names and to the geography.
Redux of the Winner of the 2011 Turtledove Award for Best Continuing Ancient TL:
The Count of Years -How the Maya survive the Collapse and Conquest
I personally like the Hellenzied vocabulary. I've been studying Greek in my free time so this TL is a big plus in my book, keep up the excellent work!
I've studied ancient greek during one year, three or four years ago, and I regret to have abandonned it. As I've rediscovered my notes of lesson in a box, I took the opportunity to reacquire these forgotten knowledges. Hellenize this TL is a good exercise, I think.
When Western Europeans conquer, it's called uplifting the natives. When anyone else does the conquering, it's called barbarism.
I take it that the Delian League/Athenian Empire becomes a...real empire in TTL. After establishing broader military control over the other Poleis of Hellas, what will be done to strenghen the stability Summakhia. A new constitution? Or universal enfranchisement?
At first, I think the behaviour of the Athenians within the Hellenic Summakhia will not differ greatly of what occured with the Delian summakhia. But maybe, Athens could be more tyrannical because of the euphoria of victory.
Anyway, there is still a risk of social war, and this risk will surely be used by the Persians.
If the social war breaks out, Athens would have a better position than Sparta during the Corinthian war and than itself during the OTL social war of 357-355. Nonetheless, concessions will be necessary about the political structure of the League.
We would end with a League at mid-way between the first and second empires.
Still waiting for that second update here! Don't feel rushed, though, just trying to get more life into this thread.
Redux of the Winner of the 2011 Turtledove Award for Best Continuing Ancient TL:
The Count of Years -How the Maya survive the Collapse and Conquest
I haven't yet finished my readings of the books of Thucydides and Xenophon which are my base of work for the TL.
So, wait some weeks.
And thanks of your support.
Excuse me for the delays.
As you know, I have 'Gods and Empires' to write and update, what is easier than for this TL, but I've not abandonned it.
I'm trying to found some time for searches and writing. The hellenization of the text takes a great deal of time. This situation will be worsened with the future schoolwork.
So, I hope to post the future update about the interbellum period between the peloponnesian and persian wars around late october, then the persian war around late december.
Nonetheless, you can help me for the 'persian war' chapter which will be a big update.
After the capitulation of Sparta, the Delian League becomes the Hellenic League which integrates Argos and Sparta; the other peloponnesian cities remain out of the League but they maintain an political friendship with Athens (Corinth excepted).
Sparte is become a 'democracy'; the Hypomeiones have been given power by the Athenians (see Conspiracy of Cinadon).
Athens is now practicing an expansionist and panhellenic policy, sometimes forcing neutral states to join the Hellenic League.
The two main sources of tension with Persia will be Cyprus and Egypt.
In Cyprus, Athens will help Evagoras to retake his throne, at the detriment of the pro-persian kings. In Egypt, the Athenians will help the native rebellion, a mean to avenge the failure of the previous expedition (c. 460 BC). I don't exclude a rebellion of Cyrus the Younger.
I think to two axis of discussion: the reactions of the greek states with the possibilities of revolt supported by the Persians, and the eventual terms of a peace.
I'm sorry for a such delay. I've been facing a writer block then a lack of will, but I will try to restart the work on the persian war chapter.
Don't hesitate to make suggestions.
An other point I would consider is the extent of what the Athenians would annex from the Achaemenids.
Just my two cents!
I think the Athenians could do more than snatching a few coastal cities in Anatolia if the ruled more of mainland Greece than just Attica. The Macedonians already were hegemons of Greece through the League of Corinth, and had a few vassals among the Thracians, which enhanced their own indigenous manpower before the could take on the Achaemenids. For the Athenians to take on a masive land-based empire, they not only need more allies among the other Greek city-states, but would need to take steps to increase their own citizen-body by making it more inclusive. Something which won't happen overnight. Reforms in the legal arena will have to be conceived in order for Athens to have their equivalent of Latin Rights (or Attican Rights, should I say?).
I'm not saying a successful Athens is never going to be interested in expanding in the lands of Asia Minor in TTL's future, but by the end of the fifth century B.C. no one in the democratic leadership of Athens, neither Pericles nor anyone else, would even think to begin such an enterprise.
Why? Because Athenians were the first people in history to identify themselves as "rulers of the seas". Why did they do that? Because their might was due to their fleets and their commercial empire. As you said big changes don't happen overnight and having the Athenians go to war with the Persians for reasons which are not aggrandising the latter one feels very forced by this stage of Greek history. And it mustn't be forgotten that the Anatolian ports on the Black Sea are not an irrelevant prize: whoever controls them AND the Bosphorus OWNS that inner sea in 400 B.C. (not many fleets to be found between the Scythians, I'm afraid, and the other nations are not developed or rich enough) and that's saying something. Not to mention the total domination of Eastern Mediterranean routes if you add the leasing of Phoenicia and Egypt... Come to think of it, this could very well be the wet-dream scenario for the politics of the pòlis, much more than the conquest of Phrygia, Mysia, Lydia and whatever.
The possibility of an Athenian Alexander (for lack of a better term) is quite realistic, if I correctly see where TTL is going, but not in the first conflict IMHO. A shift in interests towards land-based domination will need time to develop and meanwhile Athens can always keep herself occupied becoming even more disgustingly rich (which never hurts your chances in a campaign for world domination).
The athenian conquests could be motivated by panhellenism an by the necessity to remove the persian naval threat over Mediterranee. I don't know if the Athenians would want more.
I agree that reforms would be necessary, but rather at the scale of the hellenic league, especially after the aborted revolt I'm planning for the next chapter. A solution could be a more integrated league instead of the one created by and fo Athens (a more centralized version of the second athenian empire maybe).
There is also to consider the likely expansion of the cleruchies in conquered territories, and the creation of client states.